Trigeminal Nerve

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trigeminal nerve

[trī′jem·ə·nəl ′nərv]
The fifth cranial nerve in vertebrates; either of a pair of composite nerves rising from the side of the medulla, and with three great branches: the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves.

Trigeminal Nerve


the fifth pair of cranial nerves. It contains sensory, motor, and autonomic fibers.

The nuclei of the trigeminal nerve are located in the brain stem. The fibers of the trigeminal nerve that constitute the larger, or posterior, root pass from the brain stem to the apex of the temporal bone, where the trigeminal ganglion is located. Three branches depart from the trigeminal ganglion, as follows. The ophthalmic (sensory) nerve leaves the skull through the superior orbital fissure and innervates the upper eyelids, the conjunctiva, the skin of the forehead, and the anterior part of the scalp. The superior maxillary (sensory) nerve leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum, enters the pterygopalatine fossa, and innervates the skin of the lower lid, the cheek and nose, the mucosa of the nasal cavity, and the upper jaw. The inferior maxillary nerve (which is joined to the smaller, or anterior, root of the trigeminal nerve, containing the motor fibers) leaves the skull through the foramen ovale and innervates the skin of the lower part of the face, the mucosa of the cheeks and tongue, the lower jaw, and the muscles of mastication.

The trigeminal nerve takes part in many reflexes, including the corneal and mandibular (jaw) reflex. The most common disease of the trigeminal nerve is neuralgia, manifested by attacks of acute pain in the zone of innervation. Other diseases of the trigeminal nerve, including neuritis and infection with the virus of herpes zoster, are accompanied by sensory and motor disturbances in the zone of innervation.


References in periodicals archive ?
Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) can be caused by blood vessel pressing on the trigeminal nerve or can also occur in people with multiple sclerosis.
The trigeminal nerve projects directly or indirectly to specific areas of the brain which are involved in ADHD, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, epilepsy and other disorders.
A second head/neck MRI, using a perineural protocol, showed abnormal enhancement at the V2 branch of the trigeminal nerve leading to the foramen rotundum.
Trigeminocervical complex (TCC) includes the pseudounipolar trigeminal ganglion that has central afferent projections to the trigeminal nucleus caudalis in the medullary spinal cord, and a peripheral projection, largely from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal ganglion, which innervates the cranial blood vessels and other cranial structures, including the pain-sensitive dura mater, via meningeal nociceptors.
Persistent primitive trigeminal artery: Analysis of anatomical characteristics and clinical significances.
Keywords: Neuropathic pain, Post herpetic neuralgia, Streptomycin-bupivacaine, Trigeminal neuralgia.
According to embryogenesis of the carotid-basilar anastomoses described by Padget [5], there are four embryonic communicating arteries between the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems: the hypoglossal, otic, proatlantal, and trigeminal arteries.
This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Trigeminal Neuralgia, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases.
1] Trigeminal schwannomas are rare intracranial tumors, accounting for 0.
Recently, we successfully detected several kinds of mechanoreceptors in the skin innervated by trigeminal neurons (cf.
DeGiorgio, an epileptologist at UCLA, began experimenting with stimulation of a different cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, to treat his patients with intractable epilepsy and began receiving surprising feedback.