Neuropathy

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Related to trigeminal neuropathy: trigeminal neuralgia, neuralgia

neuropathy

[nu̇′räp·ə·thē]
(medicine)
Any disease affecting neurons.

Neuropathy

 

a functional weakness of the nervous system accompanied by a decrease in the absolute threshold (also called the stimulus, or sensitivity, threshold); the condition is frequently congenital.

Neuropathy arises as a disturbance in the function of the autonomic nervous system owing to deleterious influences on the fetus as a whole (for example, infection in the pregnant mother, trauma, or poisoning) or on the individual embryonic cells (as occurs when the parents suffer from alcoholism). Family circumstances, upbringing, and illnesses suffered by the infant play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropathy. The symptoms usually emerge in childhood or adolescence. When neuropathy occurs in early childhood, disturbances of sleep and appetite are most characteristic; the infant has difficulty in falling asleep, awakes easily, suckles poorly, and frequently spits up. Later, vomiting occurs, and either diarrhea or constipation develop.

From the preschool years on, increased general excitability and the rapid onset of fatigue and exhaustion are observed, in addition to continued disturbances of sleep and appetite. Children who suffer from neuropathy blush easily in response to irritation. Motor hyperactivity, nervous tics, and stammering are frequent. In adolescence, autonomic-vascular instability becomes more acute, as evidenced by frequently occurring nervous palpitation, abrupt shifts in blood pressure, headaches, dizzy spells, and fainting spells. The prognosis is favorable, with the neuropathic symptoms usually disappearing with age.

REFERENCES

Simson, T. Nevropatii, psikhopatii i reaktivnye sostoianiia mladencheskogo vozrasta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1929.
Sukhareva, G. E. Klinicheskie lektsii po psikhiatrii detskogo vozrasta, vol. 2. Moscow, 1959.

L. M. SHMAONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
The most common extracranial cause of trigeminal neuropathy is perineural spread of head and neck malignancies (2, 15).
The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (ICHD-3) classifies TN into two categories: classic TN that encompasses idiopathic TN and TN caused by neurovascular compression, and painful trigeminal neuropathy caused by many other conditions mentioned before (4).
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Since 2010, the IASP neuropathic pain guidelines have been divided into particular neuropathic pain presentations, including neuropathic cancer pain (Naleschinski, Baron, & Miaskowski, 2012), painful traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (Benoliel, Heir, & Eliav, 2014), herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia (Haanpaa, Rice, & Rowbotham, 2015), painful diabetic neuropathy (Haanpaa & Hietaharju, 2015), and central post-stroke pain (Kitt, Finnerup, & Jensen, 2015).
Peripheral painful traumatic trigeminal neuropathy: clinical features in 91 cases and proposal of novel diagnostic criteria.
On physical examination, trigeminal neuropathy and neuropathy of cranial nerve VI were present.