Several anticonvulsants are found among the drugs implicated as a cause of DILE, such as CBZ, phenytoin, ethosuximide, trimethadione
, primidone, valproic acid, and zonisamide.
Teratogenic effect on the cardiovascular system has: alcohol (leads to more frequent formation of IVSD, open arterial duct, IASD), amfetamines (condition IVSD, transposition of great vessels), anticonvulsive preparations--hydantoin (conditions stenosis of pulmonary artery and aorta, aorta coarctation, open arterial duct) and trimethadione
(transposition of great vessels, Fallot's tetralogy, hypoplasia of heart left side), lithium (Ebshtein anomaly, tricuspid valve atresia, IASD), progestogens (Fallot's teralogy, complex CHD) (Belacon and Podzaicov, 1991; Djordjikiya et al., 2005).
A chemically related drug, trimethadione
, extended the worms' lives by a whopping 47 percent, the team reports in the Jan.
For example, dextromerhorphan and debrisoquine are known substrates for a particular cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme, CYP2D6; trimethadione
, chlorzoxazone, and halothane are markers for CYP2E1 activity; morphine is predominantly processed by glucuronidation; and a host of antibiotics are not extensively metabolized but are mostly excreted unchanged by the kidneys (Bertz and Granneman 1997; Dollery 2000; Kurata et al.
Classification and Pharmacologic Management of Seizures Seizure First Line Agents New/Alternative Agents Simple Partial phenytoin primidone carbamazepine phenobarbital valproic acid gabapentin lamotrigine felbamate topiramate ethotoin mephenytoin Complex partial phenytoin primidone carbamazepine valproic acid phenobarbital mephobarbital gabapentin lamotrigine felbamate topiramate amobarbital Absence clonazepam methsuximide ethosuximide phensuximide valproic acid lamotrigine trimethadione
Myoclonic valproic acid clonazepam Tonic Clonic phenytoin/fosphenytoin phenobarbital carbamazepine primidone valproic acid topiramate Stares epilepticus phenytoin/fosphenytoin diazepam lorazepam phenobarbital diazepam secobarbital pentobarbital