Betulinic acid (3[beta],hydroxyl-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid) (Compound 1 in Scheme-1) is a lupane-structured pentacyclic triterpene
that can be obtained from many fruits, plants, and vegetables, and higher amounts can be extracted from birch tree bark (Betula species), sycamore and eucalyptus bark, the bark of planes (Platanus species), and chemical or enzymatic oxidation of betulin (extracted in large amounts from white birch tree bark) [1-4].
and phenolics present in the exudate of R.
Previous phytochemical studies of this genus yielded; dihydroisocoumarins, benzyl phthalides, favonoids, lignans, neolignans, bibenzyl derivatives, phenolic acid derivatives, kavalactones, sesquiterpenes and triterpenes
(Sari 2012; Granica et al.
The chemical screening of the hexane extracts LHESC, BHESC, LHESP, BHESP, and FHESP was positive only for anthraquinones and triterpenes
. However, for the ethanol extracts LEESC, BEESC, LEESP, BEESP, and FEESP, the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, triterpenes
, tannins, and xanthones was confirmed.
The major peaks might be contributed by triterpene
. The red peak was also recorded from a previous study by , which indicated the presence of triterpene
due to the sprayed sulphuric acid.
Haslinger, "A triterpene
saponin from Herniaria glabra," Phytochemistry, vol.
alcohols and sterols of vegetable oils," Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol.
Although statistical tests revealed significant differences for mean concentration in QTTs and Glu-BA, some extreme values of individual triterpenes
were very close for sessile and pedunculate oak (see "Mean, Minimal and Maximum Values Observed in Sessile and Pedunculate Oak").
Oleogel-S10 is a topical gel made of pure sunflower oil and a 10% triterpene
extract from birch bark.
Previous studies showed the efficacy of a combined mistletoe extract produced by addition of solubilised triterpene
acids (TT) to aqueous mistletoe extracts (viscum), creating a whole plant extract (viscumTT).
Thus, the triterpene
Lupeol can be characterized as a biomarker for the antileishmanial activity of P.
glycosides belong to a large group of compounds of glycoside nature with historically established name "saponins" (from the Latin "sapo," soap) .