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under the Roman republic, the ceremonial entrance of a victorious general and his army into Rome. The triumphal procession, which began at the Campus Martius and ascended to the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline, was led by the members of the Senate and the magistrates. They were followed by the victorious general, who, crowned with laurel and bearing the attributes of Jupiter, rode in a chariot pulled by four white steeds. Attending the chariot were musicians and singers. Close behind marched the general’s troops, who carried the spoils and led the prize prisoners of war. When the procession reached the Capitoline, sacrifices were offered to Jupiter before the formal division of the spoils. Then a public feast and games were held in the Circus Maximus.
Triumphs, which were organized by authority of the Senate, represented the highest tribute that the state could pay to a victorious general, whose name was inscribed in the fasti triumphales (official records of trimphs). Under the empire, however, only emperors and their immediate relatives were honored by triumphs.