Patellar translation was defined as the distance between the most medial point of the patella and a line drawn at the most medial point of the femoral trochlea
. The line was perpendicular to the tangent drawn along the most anterior parts of the femoral trochlea
) was measured at the most medial part of the patella level on the axial images (Figure 4).
There were 8 and 10 knees (25% and 31%) with lesions of the patella and trochlea
Axial radiographs do not show cartilaginous structures and therefore give little information about the trochlea
shape and patelofemoral articulation in infants and small children [13-15].
In the treated group, the intraarticular echo-free space was reduced, and the linear hypoechoic region of the trochlea
was visible and continuous at 7 days posttreatment (Figure 4(b)).
The distal extremity of the tarsometatarsal bone has 2 trochlea
(lateral and medial trochlea
), with the medial being the most developed.
The articular surface of the distal humerus is comprised of the trochlea
and capitellum, which form the elbow with the ulna and radial head respectively.
The medial tubercle of the astragalus is on a level with or above the line drawn across the proximal margin of the distal trochlea
, as elaborated in Balkwill and Cumbaa (1992).
Wafae, "Morphometric analysis of the angle of the femoral trochlea
," Journal of Morphological Sciences, vol.
Sweat gland secretion portion and trochlea
portion can be seen under the light microscope.
 One of the most commonly accepted causes of PFPS is abnormal tracking of the patella within the femoral trochlea
.  Potential contributing factors that have been studied are vastus medialis oblique insufficiency, decreased quadriceps, hamstrings, and ilitibial band flexibility, femoral anteversion, increased quadriceps angle, and patellar hypermobility.
Univariate analysis showed improvement of total OKS and OKS for ability to kneel were significantly associated with higher grade of radiographic lateral patellofemoral joint wear (p value 0.025 and 0.042 respectively) and postoperative physiotherapy (p value 0.018 and 0.003) and improvement in OKS for ability to climb stairs was significantly associated with higher grade cartilage wear, noted intraoperatively, for trochlea
(p value 0.042) and patella (p value 0.022).
tali, which was in distal of tibia, has a semi-cylindrical oblique joint surface.