Bait efficacy relies on bait consumption and sharing among nestmates via trophallaxis
. Therefore efficacy improves with increased recruitment to baits, as it leads to greater consumption by the target species.
Workers accumulate the insecticide on their cuticles by contact, and then transfer it to nestmates through grooming and trophallaxis
. A granular (0.1%) fipronil formulation, Chipco Choice, is labeled for mole cricket (Scapteriscus spp.) control, and a nonbait ant granule (0.0143% a.i.) is under review for registration (K.
in forager honeybees (Apis mellifera): resource uncertainty enhances begging contacts?" Journal of Comparative Physiology, vol.
Species in the family Myrmecophilidae (Orthoptera) are small, apterous, inquiline inhabitants of ant nests, and a number of species are known to strigilate and engage in trophallaxis
with their ant hosts (Wheeler 1900, Schimmer 1909, Carter 1939, Henderson & Akre 198G).
These inquiline crickets live in ant nests and exploit food resources in diverse ways (i.e., eating ant eggs, larvae, and nest debris; licking the surfaces of the ants' bodies; disrupting ant trophallaxis; or feeding via direct mouth-to-mouth transfer) [2-8].
We then recorded the number of times in 1 h that each cricket (a) was attacked by ants (i.e., the ants opened their mandibles and pursued or bit the cricket) and immediately escaped from the ant; (b) fed directly on the items provided; (c) groomed an ant body; (d) disrupted trophallaxis between ants; and (e) fed via direct mouth-to-mouth transfer from the ants.
striata males provide both orally derived fluid (trophallaxis
) and accessory gland secretions to females during courtship, additional studies would be needed to establish the origin of the longevity substance.
solenopsidis were observed in possible feeding activities with the ants, 2 observations of oral trophallaxis
and 1 observation of anal feeding.
Most likely this is explained by ant foragers picking up the bait and carrying it down into nest areas after which the toxicants were diffused throughout the colony by trophallaxis
A likely cause for this difference in efficacy is due to dilution of the bait toxicant by trophallaxis
. Rust et al.