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The structure and trophic dynamics of the Humboldt Current Ecosystem off central-south Chile, one of the most productive upwelling ecosystems of the world's oceans (Fossing et al.
Furthermore, they provide new insight to previous findings and form the basis for proposing the quality of the food stream is an important consideration when investigating the biotransfer of trace elements across trophic levels.
KEYWORDS: trophic groups; Physico-chemical fluctuations; West Algeria; Nematological population; vine.
In ecological systems this is best expressed by Lindeman's concept of ecological efficiency, which is represented as the "ratio of the energy flux into [a] trophic level to the energy flux into the level below" (Colinvaux and Barnett, 1979).
Based on preclinical studies, investigators hope that these stem cells when introduced into the spinal cord will secrete the trophic factor and surround the motor neurons keeping them alive.
The knowledge of fish diet and the distribution into trophic groups are fundamental information to understand how the assemblages respond to the available food resources in an environment under such anthropic interference.
Understanding complex trophic relationships is essential, especially in marine ecosystems, which host a variety of species that occupy apparently similar trophic positions (McCutchan, Lewis, Kendall, & McGrath, 2003; Phillips, 2012).
In general, along the Pacific Coast of Mexico, particularly off the Baja California Peninsula, few studies have approached trophic status of marine organisms using stable isotope analysis.
Keywords: Species-based indicator; Fish assemblage; Trophic level; Integrated management; Lake Iro; Chad; Central Africa
The removal of species out of an apex or high level predator in a food-chain will then create a significant top-down effect which influences the population of the lower levels of the food chain, a process known as a trophic cascade, Frisch said.
1998) documented the results of such extractive activities as "fishing down marine food webs": a gradual change in landings from long-lived, upper trophic level species to short-lived, lower trophic species.