Main trends of level of organization investigated worldwide and in South America (number of papers = 242) with ISI indexed publications between 1980 and 2015 focused studies about macrophytes mediated trophic
Yellowstone is a classic--but not singular --example of a predator-initiated trophic
Therefore, the IMTA system aims to achieve sustainable aquaculture development, by recycling aquaculture wastes such as food resources through co-cultivating the targeted species with others having different feeding habits in different trophic
levels, and improving the efficiency and productivity of intensive monoculture systems.
Amazonian fish assemblages present high taxonomic diversity and trophic
complexity (Jepsen & Winemiller, 2002), comprising several trophic
guilds from primary consumers to carnivore species.
We sought to better understand the trophic
ecology of smooth hammerhead off the coast of northern Peru by analyzing stomach contents.
postica was the only prey (or the major food source), Se was biomagnified across the 3 trophic
levels and was bioaccumulated at levels 4 times higher than when P.
groups; Physico-chemical fluctuations; West Algeria; Nematological population; vine.
In ecological systems this is best expressed by Lindeman's concept of ecological efficiency, which is represented as the "ratio of the energy flux into [a] trophic
level to the energy flux into the level below" (Colinvaux and Barnett, 1979).
Based on preclinical studies, investigators hope that these stem cells when introduced into the spinal cord will secrete the trophic
factor and surround the motor neurons keeping them alive.
In addition, from the knowledge of fish diet, the species can be grouped into trophic
groups, which indicate fish function in the ecosystem (Matthews, 1998).
Researchers from the University of British Columbia, Utah State University, Queen Mary University of London and the University of California have found that under certain conditions, when water warms, "trophic
cascades" start to occur.