Our results also demonstrated that miR-411, like miR-376c (shown before (22) and here), can promote trophoblast
cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.
Our results also showed that under low oxygen tension, there was increased in proliferation of trophoblast
; which would lead to increased in thickness of trophospongium zone, and decreased in differentiation of trophoblast
; which would lead to decreased in the number of giant cells.
The layer between 45% and 35% Percoll contained the trophoblast
cells; this was collected, suspended in DMEM, and centrifuged at 1200 rpm at room temperature for 10 min.
HLA-G immunoreactivity is specific for intermediate trophoblast
in gestational trophoblastic disease and can serve as a useful marker in differential diagnosis.
The blastocyst is surrounded by trophoblast
and thus everything will tend to the formation of chorionic villi; however, the trophoblast
from which the implantation began can grow further, causing greater branching of its chorionic villi.
Activation of distinct extracellular matrix (ECM) components and/or proteolytic degradation as well as the controlled variation in the cell-ECM and cell-cell interactions are important factors involved in inadequate remodeling of the spiral arteries and abnormal invasion of the trophoblast
in PE (8, 9).
Accreta complicating complete placenta previa is characterized by reduced systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of the invasive trophoblast
. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;204:411.e1-411.e11.
Tissues were washed extensively with PBS and (i) immediately snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80[degrees]C for analysis of protein expression by Western blotting or for Ras activity as detailed below, (ii) fixed and paraffin embedded for immunohistochemical analysis, (iii) immediately used for explant studies, or (iv) for trophoblast
cell studies as detailed below.
In mice, the placenta is composed of trophoblast
giant cells (TGC), spongiotrophoblast cells (ST), and glycogen trophoblast
NK receptor ligands are expressed in invading placental trophoblast
cells, as reported by Vacca .
At the stage of 8 blastomeres, the blastocyst divides into embryoblast and trophoblast
forms villi and first primary, containing only the trophoblast
, then secondary, containing the stroma (embryonic mesenchyme), and later tertiary, containing the vessels (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)).
One of the most probable pathomechanisms of PE development is connected with inadequate maternal blood flow in the placenta, caused by deficient spiral artery remodeling and shallow trophoblast