This effort by Gibreel to "tropicalize
" London draws on a familiar list of charges laid at the door of immigrant peoples by the British: large, informal families; lax work ethics; flashy clothes and music.
THE THIRD WORLD NOW INHABITS THE FIRST: LATIN American, Asian and African popular cultures tropicalize
the asphalt jungles of our major cities.
Canudas explains that Argentine clothing franchises have had to "tropicalize
" colors (more conservative hues are preferred in Argentina), and modify the range of sizes.
," Aparicio and Chavez-Silverman offer, "means to trope, to imbue a particular space, geography, group, or nation with a set of traits, images and values" (1997: 8).
One of the ways in which Wells accomplishes this reversal is to tropicalize
the Britain of the future; in the words of his hero: "I think I have said how much hotter than our own was the weather of this Golden Age.
Most backers of innovation in Latin America prefer to import proven intellectual property, negotiate the distribution rights to it across Latin America and tweak or tropicalize
the product to better fit the middle income realities of the region.
Taking the show's title, a Deleuzian phrase suggested by Gillick, as a kind of North Star around which their heterogeneous projects constellate, the group will present a refracted play of shared histories and spaces: Bulloch will turn the ceiling into a night sky; Gonzalez-Foerster will "tropicalize
" a rotunda ramp and present a live orchestral performance; and Tiravanija will present video interviews of artists with whom he was associated in the 1990s.
Aravamudan deftly negotiates between sentimental readings that colonize tropicopolitan figures such as Equiano and Toussaint Louverture by flattening the contradictions that animate their enterprise and critical reading that "underestimates the ability of a monolithic underdog, the subaltern, to tropicalize
metropolitan discourse, overstating radical alterity in the process." Like van Boheemen-Saaf, Aravamudan reframes Spivak's question, asking "How can the subaltern speak?