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[Gr.,=sphere of air], the mixture of gases surrounding a celestial body with sufficient gravity to maintain it. Although some details about the atmospheres of other planets and satellites are known, only the earth's atmosphere has been well studied, the science of
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The thickness of the tropopause ranges from a few hundred meters to 2–3 km. In the tropopause the lapse rate decreases, and temperature inversions are frequently observed. The height of the upper boundary of the troposphere is usually taken as the height of the tropopause. The height of the tropopause depends on geographic latitude, and the tropopause is higher in summer than in winter. Moreover, the height of the tropopause also depends on cyclonic activity; that is, the tropopause is lower in cyclones and higher in anticyclones. Over certain regions the tropopause often breaks up and then reforms; in the subtropics, breaks in the tropopause are regularly observed as we move from temperate to tropical latitudes. These breaks are associated with powerful subtropical jet streams.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere, usually characterized by an abrupt change of lapse rate; the change is in the direction of increased atmospheric stability from regions below to regions above the tropopause; its height varies from 9 to 12 miles (15 to 20 kilometers) in the tropics to about 6 miles (10 kilometers) in polar regions.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


The boundary region at the top of the troposphere. In this atmospheric layer, an increase in altitude is not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in temperature. It is the coldest level in the atmosphere. The height of the tropopause is not constant at all latitudes. Over the equatorial regions, it is located around the 50,000-ft level, whereas over the poles it is only about 25,000 ft high. In the middle latitudes, it is encountered at about 35,000 ft. In the tropopause, the temperature is colder over the equator than over the poles.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
References in periodicals archive ?
Given the significant differences in tropopause pressure (Fig.
Distinguishing between the non-TT and TT-based pathways also affords an explanation for the bimodal distribution of dynamic tropopause pressure for cold events, centered at 150 hPa in Fig.
The thermodynamic interpretation of the relationship between tropopause pressure and SST is that the depressed tropopause is potentially colder, and thus it creates an environment in which the bulk column stability is similar to that of the deep tropics despite a lower surface temperature (Emanuel 1986).