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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
George, who was the full cousin of the Tsar's wife Alexandra, saw it as a summer-only residence and did not deem it suitable for the Russian royals, who had holidayed at the estate in 1896.
These included diamondencrusted sabres belonging to the Tsar and his son, crown prince Alexei, aged just 13 when he was butchered with the rest of his family.
Policy tsars offer a third channel of advice, different again, and ideally complementary - and, while a novelty at CA level, there have been far more nationally than probably you, and certainly I, imagined.
Those who hold the traditional point of view for the most part continue to write about the high degree of authority that the tsar commanded in the consciousness of the people as if it were a self-evident truth requiring no proof.
Many actors would be reluctant to portray the tsar. I think that was one of the reasons why director Alexei Uchitel cast me.
It is therefore essential that TSAR continues to receive support and Arnold Clark were delighted to be able to provide the help they needed.
The political commotion in the wake of the erection of the monument to Tsar Dusan raised the question of whether the same scenario of 2011 when shortly after the Kale incident early parliamentary elections were called is now being repeated and whether new rows between the coalition partners are possible even though the government institutions led by VMRO-DPMNE staff said they had nothing to do with the monument.
During the English Civil War, royal silver was melted down by Parliamentarians, but this example was preserved as it was safely held in the Tsar's treasury in Moscow."
Tsar Paul looked a shade unlucky then, but at least his showing proved he is on the way back to his best form of two seasons ago after failing to distinguish himself during 2011.
"Moreover, King George V, who ruled from 1910-36, was a cousin of our Tsar Nicholas II, so the British princes are his distant nephews," he explained.
Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 - 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland.
A portrait of this Tsar still hangs in the regiment's HQ in Edinburgh.