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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"The messianic beliefs of Poles were fueled by their feeling of being a victim of tsarist Russia and Germany.
In doing so, Bradley succeeds in showing that voluntary associations in tsarist Russian society belonged to the same general family as their European and North American cousins.
Neither the Tsarist nor the Soviet government proved capable of building good roads or railroads quickly that met ever-growing demand or stood the test of time.
Had Herlihy devoted more space to integrating alcohol with other issues that beset tsarist Russia, this would have been a more sobering book indeed.
In the period 1826-1905, the Tsarist regime had shot 894 criminals and revolutionaries.
Under the guise of preventing fraud and abuse, tsarist bureaucrats checked the development of entrepreneurial initiative and capitalist rationality as they also created tension and distrust between themselves and the small but important class of corporate managers.
Many historians have contended that the perceived incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II during the war, the detachment of Tsaritsa Alexandra, and poor public relations skills of Nicholas and his government caused Russian citizens to lose confidence in the tsarist regime.12 Other scholars, most prominently Fedor Gaida, have put the onus for the demise of the tsarist regime on Russia's liberal politicians.
Their mission is to "smuggle" gyspy and Ukrainian culture into the mainstream, just as Gogol (Nikolai, 1809-1852) did in Tsarist Russia.
Russians need to know about the fate of the tsarist family and all of the other victims of the Communist regime.
After this he turns to a chronological history of the siege to show the extent of suffering in the former Tsarist capital: starvation was part of the German plan and there was looting, incompetence and cannibalism, all later denied by Communist censorship.
Comparing Yeltsin to pre-Communist tsars is useful not only in terms of highlighting his importance in Russian history, but in highlighting two continuities in terms of leadership style that Yeltsin held in common with his nondemocratic tsarist predecessors.
How appropriate that he should be buried with all the trappings of Tsarist feudalism.