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see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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A substance that initiates and mediates the formation of the corresponding immune body, termed antibody. Antigens can also react with formed antibodies. Antigen-antibody reactions serve as host defenses against microorganisms and other foreign bodies, or are used in laboratory tests for detecting the presence of either antigen or antibody. See Antibody, Antigen-antibody reaction

A protein immunogen (any substance capable of inducing an immune response) is usually composed of a large number of antigenic determinants. Thus, immunizing an animal with a protein results in the formation of a number of antibody molecules with different specificities. The antigenicity of a protein is determined by its sequence of amino acids as well as by its conformation. Antigens may be introduced into an animal by ingestion, inhalation, sometimes by contact with skin, or more regularly by injection into the bloodstream, skin, peritoneum, or other body part.

With a few exceptions, such as the autoantigens and the isoantigens of the blood groups, antigens produce antibody only in species other than the ones from which they are derived. All complete proteins are antigenic, as are many bacterial and other polysaccharides, some nucleic acids, and some lipids. Antigenicity may be modified or abolished by chemical treatments, including degradation or enzymatic digestion; it may be notably increased by the incorporation of antigen into oils or other adjuvants. See Isoantigen

Bacteria, viruses, protozoans, and other microorganisms are important sources of antigens. These may be proteins or polysaccharides derived from the outer surfaces of the cell (capsular antigens), from the cell interior (the somatic or O antigens), or from the flagella (the flagellar or H antigens). Other antigens either are excreted by the cell or are released into the medium during cell death and disruption; these include many enzymes and toxins, of which diphtheria, tetanus, and botulinus toxins are important examples. The presence of antibody to one of these constituent antigens in human or animal sera is presumptive evidence of past or present contact with specific microorganisms, and this finds application in clinical diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. See Botulism, Diphtheria, Toxin

Microbial antigens prepared to induce protective antibodies are termed vaccines. They may consist of either attenuated living or killed whole cells, or extracts of these. Since whole microorganisms are complex structures, vaccines may contain 10 or more distinct antigens, of which generally not more than one or two engender a protective antibody. Examples of these are smallpox vaccine, a living attenuated virus; typhoid vaccine, killed bacterial cells; and diphtheria toxoid, detoxified culture fluid. Several independent vaccines may be mixed to give a combined vaccine, and thus reduce the number of injections necessary for immunization, but such mixing can result in a lesser response to each component of the mixture. See Vaccination

Allergens are antigens that induce allergic states in humans or animals. Examples are preparations from poison ivy, cottonseed, or horse dander, or simple chemicals such as formaldehyde or picryl chloride. See Hypersensitivity, Immunology


A substance which reacts with the products of specific humoral or cellular immunity, even those induced by related heterologous immunogens.


a substance that stimulates the production of antibodies
References in periodicals archive ?
The tumor-specific antigens used for the fused molecule can be either unique to a specific tumor or shared.
I believe that an autologous vaccine for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma produced from a hybridoma using the Biovest bioreactor yields a complete tumor-specific antigen.
NWBio") announced today that it has executed an option to secure an exclusive worldwide license from The Regents of the University of California for a kidney cancer tumor-specific antigen ("GM-CSF/G250") to be used with NWBio's proprietary dendritic cell-based immunotherapy ("DCVax(TM)") for cancer.
Dendritic cells are then exposed to the tumor-specific antigens, and are imprinted with these antigens before being reintroduced back into the body.
NASDAQ: SRNE; Sorrento), announced today that they have entered into a binding agreement to initiate a global collaboration to discover and develop novel anti-cancer immunotherapies derived from Sorrento's proprietary G-MAB library against neoepitopes of tumor-specific antigens discovered using NantWorks' proprietary pan-omics based, precision medicine approach.
The amendment encompasses emerging areas of research in the immune response to tumor neo-antigens, truly tumor-specific antigens generated as tumors accumulate genetic mutations.
Through the collaboration, Ludwig researchers will conduct early clinical studies designed to examine the safety and potential utility of CpG DNA-based products as stand-alone treatments for cancer, as well as in combination with several of Ludwig's proprietary tumor-specific antigens for potential cancer vaccines.
But we hold great hopes that a similar approach will be applicable to a wide range of tumors, provided researchers can identify tumor-specific antigens.
Yu described ImmunoCellular's proprietary DC-based immunotherapeutic vaccines, which are designed to target both tumor cells and cancer stem cells by utilizing multiple, validated tumor-specific antigens to trigger a powerful antitumor immune system response.
MKC1106-MT is an active immunotherapeutic treatment consisting of three components: a DNA plasmid encoding select portions of Melan A and tyrosinase (two tumor-specific antigens that are highly expressed by melanoma tumor cells) and two synthetic peptides with sequences analogous to the targeted portion of Melan A and tyrosinase.
Data Continues to Support the use of NewLink's HyperAcute Immunotherapy to Elicit a Response in Tumor-Specific Antigens Common to both the Immunotherapy and the Patient's Tumor Cells -

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