Calcinosis

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calcinosis

[‚kal·sə′nō·səs]
(medicine)
Deposition of calcium salts in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, or other part of the body in certain pathologic conditions.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Calcinosis

 

calcification, the deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs that do not normally contain them in undissolved form.

In old persons, lime is deposited in the cartilage of the ribs and larynx. A normal phenomenon is the grains of lime found in the pineal gland and the vascular plexus of the brain (brain sand). Under pathological conditions, calcium salts are deposited both inside and outside the cells. Sometimes these salts take the form of grains or granules, and sometimes they form larger clumps. The process is called petrifaction, and the calcified area is called the petrifact. Calcium salts fall out of solution and are deposited in tissues because of the unstable state of protein colloids, changes in the pH toward greater alkalinity, and increases in calcium concentration in the blood. Several forms of calcinosis are distinguished, according to the mechanism of development.

Dystrophic calcification is a localized process in tissue areas with sharply lowered metabolism, as a result of which oxidative processes are decreased, the tissue becomes more alkaline, and lime falls out of solution. Dystrophic calcification occurs in dystrophic processes (dystrophy) and tissue necrosis.

Calcareous metastases are a manifestation of a general disruption of calcium metabolism in which the calcium concentration in the blood is elevated. Osteomyelitis, myeloma, and other diseases induce processes that destroy bone tissue and release lime from it.

The causes of calcium accumulation in the blood include diseases of the large intestine and kidneys and hypovitaminosis D. In contrast to dystrophic calcification, the sedimentation of lime in healthy, unchanged tissues and organs occurs only in those tissues that normally have an alkaline medium (lungs, stomach, kidneys, and arteries).

Interstitial calcinosis (calcium gout) is distinguished by the fact that there is no depletion of calcium in the bones and no excess concentration of calcium in the blood. The depositing of lime occurs in the skin and subcutaneous tissues or may spread to the muscles and other tissues. The cause of interstitial calcinosis has not yet been clearly shown. It is detected chiefly during X-ray examination. Treatment is both symptomatic and directed toward removing the primary causes of the condition.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
A homozygous missense mutation in human KLOTHO causes severe tumoral calcinosis. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2007;7:318-319.
Long-term clinical outcome and phenotypic variability in hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis and hyperphosphatemic hyperostosis syndrome caused by a novel GALNT3 mutation; case report and review of the literature.
Vimala, "Recurrent primary hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis: a case report," Acta Cytologica, vol.
Takao, "A case of symptomatic tumoral calcinosis on the great toe and review of the literature," Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, vol.
Tumoral Calcinosis is an uncommon familial disease secondary to a mutation in FGF23 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 23), KL (Klotho) gene and the UDP-Nacetyl-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3.
Currently, there are more than 300 cases of tumoral calcinosis have been described.
If the radiologist is unfamiliar with the radiological patterns of tumoral calcinosis or disease processes that mimic the condition, then diagnosis and treatment might be delayed or the patient may be subjected to unwarranted invasive procedures.
HISTORY: The term tumoral calcinosis was coined by Inclan (3) in 1943 but this condition was recognized as an entity much earlier.
Uraemic calcinosis occurs commonly in patients with chronic renal failure on long-term haemodialysis therapy and does not fall within the broad definition of tumoral calcinosis.
Tumoral CPPDCD should be differentiated from tumoral calcinosis and malignant or benign tumors such as synovial chondromatosis.
The soft-tissue lesions of tumoral calcinosis are typically lobulated, well-demarcated calcifications that are most often distributed along the extensor surfaces of large joints.