Tundra Soil


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Tundra Soil

 

any one of a series of genetic soil groups occurring on plains, in mountain tundras, and, to a lesser extent, in the arctic and forest-tundra zones. Tundra soils form in a cold humid climate under low unproductive vegetation. They are usually confined to regions with permafrost, but they also form on seasonally frozen rocks outside the permafrost zone.

The following groups of tundra soils are distinguished in the northern hemisphere: tundra gleys, tundra illuvial humuses, tundra podzolic Al-Fe humuses, tundra sods, tundra volcanic soils, tundra residually calcareous soils, and tundra weakly biogenic soils. Tundra gleys and illuvial humuses are the most common.

Vegetation growing in tundra soils is an important food source for reindeer (winter and summer pastures). The following crops are raised in the open ground in the tundra zone: potatoes and other vegetables, forage root crops, barley (for its foliage), and grasses. (Vegetables are also cultivated in hothouses.)

The principal approaches to the improvement of tundra soils are the alteration of water and temperature conditions, the intensification of related biochemical processes for which meliorative measures are used (drainage, irrigation, creation of shelterbelts), the application of large quantities of organic and mineral fertilizers, and the implementation of special methods of soil cultivation.

N. A. KARAVAEVA and V. O. TARGUL’IAN

References in periodicals archive ?
nov., novel acidobacteria from tundra soil," International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol.
Despite the slowness of the chemical action of atmospheric agents, the capacity of the tundra soil to retain water sometimes creates conditions that favor the accumulation of oxides of iron and aluminium.
Relatively little net N was mineralized during 21 wk in the 4 [degrees] C microcosms soil controls (0.15 [[micro]gram] N/g soil), [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 9 OMITTED] as is common in tundra soils (Nadelhoffer et al.
Population dynamics of alpine tundra soil bacteria, Niwot Ridge, Colorado Front Range, USA.
Carbon dioxide flux from tundra soils and vegetation as related to temperature at Barrow, Alaska.
Our results demonstrate a negative effect upon tundra soil C storage caused by the passage of tree islands, a result consistent with the earlier reports of Burns (1980) and Holtmeier and Broll (1992).
Lodygin, Structural and Functional Parameters of Humus Substances of Taiga and Tundra Soils in the European Northeast of Russia, RSAU, Moscow, Russia, 2016, http://dlib.
These parameter values are probably representative of some agricultural soils (e.g., are comparable to potassium coefficients used by Barber and Silberbush 1984), but represent the extreme of the parameterization for tussock tundra soils.
Isaev, "Carbon and nitrogen storage of mountain forest tundra soils in central and eastern Siberia," in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on the Joint Siberian Permafrost Studies between Japan and Russia in 1996, Tsukuba, Japan, 1996.
Permafrost 'time bomb' ready to explode: An average global temperature rise of just 2[degrees]C will cause the world's permafrost regions to unleash billions of tonnes of greenhouse gases locked up in frozen tundra soils, according to a researcher from the Laboratory for Climate Sciences and the Environment in France.
Tundra soils often contain several centimeters of free organic matter at the surface because the rate of decomposition is low.
Concerning genesis of the buried organic matter in tundra soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 29:89-90.