El-Arwash, "An optimal design of single tuned filter
in distribution systems," Electric Power Systems Research, vol.
In the early work of varactor tuned filter
developments, the center frequency was tuned by loading the varactor diodes at the ends of resonating stubs .
where [[omega].sub.0] = 1/[square root of([L.sub.i][C.sub.i]) (i = 1,2,3) is the midband angular frequency of filter, FBW = [DELTA][omega]/[[omega].sub.0] is the fractional bandwidth, and [bar.Y] is the normalized admittance matrix, which in the case of synchronously tuned filter
is given by
ADI reduced the amplitude of the unwanted sideband into a load by designing a tuned filter
network to provide the proper sum termination as a function of the RF and LO frequencies.
Since the resistor value is infinity, the high pass filters it self will work as a series tuned filter
. The tolerance and aging of components can make the shunt passive filter detuning.
The coupling matrix [M] is allowed to have nonzero diagonal elements [M.sub.ii] for an asynchronously tuned filter
. The excitation vector is given by [e]t = [1, 0, 0, 0].
This method requires a skilled operator and a "golden" filter to compare time response between the tuned filter
and an ideal one.
For example, in the case of tuned filter
production, the first filter units should be tested initially using a VNA (with a measurement result traceable to National Institute of Standards and Practices standards).
Among different attitudes towards the microwave filter tuning the one that refers to the coupling matrix describing the filter is powered by the simple idea: generally speaking, we want to have the ideal coupling matrix [M.sub.0] of the correctly tuned filter
and, based on the measured reflection characteristics, the detuned coupling matrix M.
Frequency range (GHz) 2.5 to 4.0 Insertion loss (dB) 5.0 3 dB bandwidth (MHz) 30 to 60 Coarse selectivity (dB) 36 Tuning coil current (A) 0.5 Switch time ([[micro]second]) 15 Weight (g) 80 Characteristics of a tuned filter
compared to the [S.sub.21] characteristics of a YIG-tuned filter based on equal insertion passband losses are shown in Figure 7.
Let us assume that we have M points representing the filter characteristic denoted by s [member of] [R.sup.M] and, by [s.sub.0] [member of] [R.sup.M] , the characteristic of a properly tuned filter
. We shall denote the values of N tuning element positions of a filter by z [member of] [R.sup.N].
The YIG tuned filter
(YTF) is one of the more difficult devices to measure because of its sensitivity to current fluctuations in its tuning coil (in this case 10 rad/mA) and its sensitivity to temperature variation, as shown in Figure 9a.