Tuning System


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Tuning System

 

in music, the mathematical expression of a given system of pitch relationships. A tuning system is characterized by a series of tones expressed as a set of whole or fractional numbers, each of which shows the ratio of the frequency of the upper tone to that of the lower tone of an interval. Tuning systems are important in the construction and tuning of musical instruments with fixed or semifixed pitch.

The monodic music of a number of European peoples typically uses Pythagorean tuning, which is br.sed on a perfect fifth, having a pitch ratio of 3 : 2. Beginning approximately in the 16th century, just intonation was widely used in polyphonic music. It was based on the perfect fifth and the major third, having a pitch ratio of 5 : 4. In the early 18th century, the intensive development of tonal relationships led to the creation of equal-temperament tuning, in which a perfect octave (2 : 1) is divided into 12 equal semitones. In actual performance on instruments that have undetermined tuning, such as the violin and cello, intonation is in zones.

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References in periodicals archive ?
This combustion tuning system is a core component of a comprehensive system, currently under development, that will eventually enable AI-controlled operation of thermal power plants.
Following the introduction of basic concepts--such as the harmonic series, beats, cents, and the Pythagorean and syntonic commas--the work embarks on a "Tour Through Tuning Systems" (chapter 5).
A resulting advantage with this kind of drive would be the possibility to tune the pipe manually through rotation of the screw shaft without disassembling the tuning system. Due to the good applicability the manufacturer of this piezo drive was contacted to get the price of the system.
A multi-standard active-RC filter with accurate tuning system, Journal of Semiconductors 30(9): 095011.
Though the product is marketed to achieve consistency in claims handling, Romano says adjusters can manipulate claims payouts directly by tampering with Colossus' tuning system. Tuning the program allows the software to render a desired payment amount to particular types of injuries.
Whiscombe calls his system the Harmonic Optimized Tuning System. or HOTS.
Modular, controllable lighting options and a unique intelligent tuning system make setup and deployment easy.
It has an easy-dial tuning system, LED tuning and power on indicator.
WavePort has an innovative wave prediction capability and a a[euro]wave-by-wave' tuning system. The PowerBuoy is expected to be deployed at the Santona site in Spain, where OPT has worked on a wave energy project under contract from Iberdrola, the major Spanish utility company.
The grant is a part of the total award of EUR4.5m to consortium of companies to deliver a PowerBuoy wave energy device under a project entitled WavePort, with a wave prediction capability and a 'wave-by 'wave' tuning system.
"I reject categorically the idea we find in textbooks about Bach's life that Bach wrote "The Well-Tempered Keyboard" for 'pedagogical' reasons or to demonstrate the practicality of the well-tempered tuning system.
By this time, a modified tuning system had been developed that separated each octave into twelve separate tones.