the relative horizontal displacement between tunnel vault and invert) equals to 5 cm, under the primary Loma-Prieta earthquake with [T.
In addition, as a result of increasing stresses at the tunnel vault and the invert due to redistribution of soil stress and loss of the effect of tunnel construction sequence followed by applying earthquake, the soil shear strength and frictional interaction between the soil and the tunnel lining increase.
Shear distortion of the tunnel cross section is based on relative horizontal displacement between tunnel vault and invert- cm.
For HW1D case, by increasing fault dip angle from 45[degrees] to 75[degrees], the horizontal and vertical displacements at the tunnel vault and the invert, decreased and increased, respectively.
This is well justified by the fault rupture bifurcation and the associated diffusion of plastic shear strain to the tunnel vault and invert.
For FW3D and FW5D cases, by increasing fault dip angle indifferent earthquake magnitudes, there was almost no displacement at the tunnel vault and the invert.