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see flatfishflatfish,
common name for any member of the unique and widespread order Pleuronectiformes containing over 500 species (including the flounder, halibut, plaice, sole, and turbot), 130 of which are American.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Scophthalmus maximus), a fish of the family Bothi-dae, order Pleuronectiformes. The body is very tall and covered with bony tubercles. Both eyes are on the left side of the head. The body usually measures approximately 40 cm, sometimes as much as 1 m, and weighs 2–3 kg. The fish is found near Europe; in the USSR, it is found in the Baltic and Barents seas. The turbot is a predator. It reproduces in spring and summer, close to the shores. It is fished commercially. A closely related species, the kalkan (Scophthalmus maeoticus), inhabits the Black Sea.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. a European flatfish, Scophthalmus maximus, having a pale brown speckled scaleless body covered with tubercles: family Bothidae. It is highly valued as a food fish
2. any of various similar or related fishes
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The sex ratio of Pleuronectidae was close to 1:1, except for spotted turbot (1:1.4).
Males showed an exponent (b) greater than females, except in hornyhead turbot. For the overall sample of Pleuronectidae, the exponent exceeds the value of 3, except for dover sole, which showed a slightly lower value.
Significant differences between sexes were found for the slopes of the weight/length relationship in the cases of spotted turbot and hornyhead turbot.
Comparing the slopes for different years, only spotted turbot showed significant differences between 1988 and 1990.
(2002), recorded low abundance of spotted turbot in summer 2009 in Conception, California, between 72 and 90 m, and with bottom temperature about 7.2[degrees]C.
(1983) reported spotted turbot off Los Angeles, California, with abundances of 6 ind [trawl.sup.-1], that were mostly juveniles.
Kramer (1991) estimated abundances of 1.2 to 16.2 ind [ha.sup.-1] for spotted turbot, mainly in shallow waters (5 to 10 m) off San Diego, California, and with a size range between 75 and 237 mm SL.
(1983) recorded low abundances of hornyhead turbot predominantly juveniles, between 10 and 65 m.
(2009) recorded abundant populations of hornyhead turbot between 360 and 450 m, these depths characterized by low temperatures (7-9[degrees]C) and anoxic conditions (<0.5 mL [O.sub.2] [L.sup.-1]) into deeper waters during the El Nino event of 1987-1988 (Allen, 2008).
We have found obvious differences between sexes for the length-weight relationships of spotted turbot and hornyhead turbot.