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Although some differences from the target turbulence conditions were found, all spectra measured behind the RTS were found to be within the range of turbulence energy measured during the on-road campaign.
The longitudinal component (u) of the RTS data shows low turbulence energy at low-end of the frequency range.
During the first several hours represented in Figure 15, when the typhoon has not yet arrived at the bridge site, the fluctuation energy of the wind remains low; the turbulence energy then increases sharply with the arrival of the typhoon at the bridge site and remains at a high level until the typhoon has passed the bridge site, after which the turbulence energy recovers to a relatively low level.
As opposed to pipe flows, rectangular and square channel flows, even in case of unladen flows, are considerably anisotropic with respect to the components of the turbulence energy, which is vividly expressed near the channel walls and corners being notable as for the secondary flows.
The original equations written for each component of the Reynolds stress were reduced to their general form in terms of the turbulence energy and its dissipation rate with additional effect of the particulate phase.
where: t--time; [rho]--density; [PHI]--dependent variable, as a moment to the unit of mass, turbulence energy, its dissipation rate; when [PHI] = 1--continuity equation; [bar.
It is easy to see that for the turbulent flows with [OMEGA] [not equal to] 0 the turbulence energy (understood here as the energy of velocity fluctuations) K = 1/2 ([v'.
loss] - Empirical loss coefficient I - Turbulence intensity k - Turbulence energy Re - Reynolds number P - Perimeter of collecting plates (m) Cr1 - Linear resistance coefficient (kg/[m.
j] are components of v', the Latin indices i, j obtain the values 1, 2, and 3) and the equation for the turbulence energy K = 1/2 <[v'.
The VB case, compared to the C6Q and C7F spectra, has lower turbulence energy at low frequencies and higher energy at high frequencies.
The average longitudinal velocity and turbulence energy radial distributions calculated for these three regimes are shown in Figs 2 and 3.