turf

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turf:

see lawnlawn,
grass turf or greensward cultivated in private yard or public park. A good lawn, or green, has both beauty and usefulness; its maintenance for golf, tennis, baseball, and other sports is a costly and specialized procedure.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Turf

 

the living form of herbaceous, primarily perennial plants, usually grasses and sedges. Their axillary shoots grow within the sheaths covering their leaves and emerge without tearing the sheath. This causes the turf runners to grow close together, forming a thick clump. Turfs are typically found in the steppe (for example, feathergrass and some species of sheep’s fescue) and, to a lesser extent, in meadows (tufted hairgrass) and marshes (sheathing cottongrass).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

turf

The upper layer of earth and vegetable mold in which the roots of grass and other small plants form a thick cover.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

turf

1. the surface layer of fields and pastures, consisting of earth containing a dense growth of grasses with their roots; sod
2. a piece cut from this layer, used to form lawns, verges, etc.
3. 
a. a track, usually of grass or dirt, where horse races are run
b. horse racing as a sport or industry
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in classic literature ?
In the daytime they either lie among the aquatic plants, or openly feed on the turf plain.
He was a man of excellent birth and education, who had squandered a fortune upon the turf, and who lived now by doing a little quiet and genteel book-making in the sporting clubs of London.
We crossed the marshy bottom and passed over a quarter of a mile of dry, hard turf. Again the ground sloped, and again we came on the tracks.
"I have been on the turf for twenty years, and never was asked such a question as that before," said he.
You must know, with your wide experience of turf matters, Colonel Ross, that it is possible to make a slight nick upon the tendons of a horse's ham, and to do it subcutaneously, so as to leave absolutely no trace.
But there was a hole left in one place and I could see down it and see the child's head; and I made haste and did away the turf and the choppings, and took out the child.
Rolling over and over upon the turf the two battled with demoniac fury, until the colossal cat, by doubling his hind paws far up beneath his belly sank his talons deep into Taglat's chest, then, ripping downward with all his strength, Numa accomplished his design, and the disemboweled anthropoid, with a last spasmodic struggle, relaxed in limp and bloody dissolution beneath his titanic adversary.
"I do not like to tell," said the Englishman, digging nervously at the turf with the point of a stick, "but you have my word that he would rather you were not here."
Instead, he swung his giant palm with all the force of his mighty muscles, and, catching the young bull alongside the head, sent him sprawling across the turf. The ape was up and at him again in a second, and this time they closed with tearing fingers and rending fangs--or at least that had been the intention of the young bull; but scarcely had they gone down, growling and snapping, than the ape-man's fingers found the throat of his antagonist.
The Supreme Committee for Delivery and Legacy (SC) Landscape and Sport Turf Management Senior Manager, Eng Yasser al-Mulla, said that the idea of establishing the nursery project has come to meet the needs of the World Cup of turf, especially as Qatar suffers from a lack of cosmetic turfs outside the stadium.
ISLAMABAD -- Pakistan Sports Board (PSB) will be laying synthetic hockey turfs in six cities of the country at a cost of Rs 200 million.
Many people have inquired about Turf Nation's surface success and Warrior Turfs strategy to promote the 4th Super Bowl surface by the group.