pasha

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pasha

(päsh`ə, păsh`ə, pəshä`), highest honorary title in official usage in the Ottoman Empire and with slight variation in the states formed from its territories, where it is sometimes still employed (although Turkey formally abolished it in 1934 and Egypt in 1953). The designation, which is a personal rather than a hereditary distinction, was given under the Ottoman rulers to individuals of both civilian and military status, notably ministers, provincial governors, and army officers.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Pasha

 

a river in Leningrad Oblast, RSFSR, a left tributary of the Svir’ River, which it enters at the mouth of the Svir’. The Pasha is 242 km long and drains an area of 6,650 sq km. It originates in Pashozero and flows across a marshy, forested plain. It is fed primarily by snow. The mean flow rate is approximately 70 cu m per sec, the maximum, 1,200 cu m per sec. The Pasha freezes in November, and the ice breaks up in the second half of April. It is used for floating timber and is navigable from Batogovo.


Pasha

 

the highest title of civil and military officials in the Ottoman Empire. After the reforms of the 19th century and the creation of a regular army, “pasha” became an honorary title of generals and ministers. It continued to be used for generals in the Turkish republic until 1934, when the title was abolished. It was retained in both Egypt and Iraq after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1918—in Egypt until the July Revolution of 1952 and in Iraq until the July Revolution of 1958.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

pasha

, pacha
(formerly) a provincial governor or other high official of the Ottoman Empire or the modern Egyptian kingdom: placed after a name when used as a title
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005