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a round metal seal made of lead, silver, or gold, which was usually used in the Middle Ages to fasten papal, imperial, and royal acts (documents) by being tied to the document by a string; the act itself, with the bulla tied to it, was also called a bulla. [In English the act is called a bull.] The most important royal and imperial decrees, fastened with golden seals, came to be called Golden Bulls (such as the Golden Bull of 1222, issued by the Hungarian King Andrew II, and the Golden Bull of 1356, issued by Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire). In later centuries, up until modern times, the term “bulla” was used to designate only the most important acts issued by the popes of Rome.

The supplementary historical discipline known as sphragistics studies medieval bull seals.



A circular metal boss used by the ancient Romans as a decoration for fastening parts of doors; often highly ornamented.
References in periodicals archive ?
While the cervical approach is the traditional way to access the tympanic bulla in rodents (1), the retroauricular approach provides simple and straightforward access to the cochlea.
In end-stage middle ear infection, epithelium undergoes metaplasia with new bone proliferation of tympanic bulla which serves as a nidus of infection.
Tympanic Bulla Osteoctomy (TBO) - Tympanic bulla was exposed by separating attachments of ear canal.
Otitis media in dogs and cats has a characteristic appearance on MRI and CT, consisting of material filling the tympanic bulla. (10,11) There are no imaging changes consistent with otitis interna in dogs, so the diagnosis is made based on clinical signs of vestibular disease and a concurrent diagnosis of otitis media seen on imaging.
The CCG was placed close to the ventral surface of the caudolateral part of middle of the cranial base, ventromedial to the ventral margin of a large tympanic bulla (Figs.