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see printingprinting,
means of producing reproductions of written material or images in multiple copies. There are four traditional types of printing: relief printing (with which this article is mainly concerned), intaglio, lithography, and screen process printing.
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(or composition), processes leading to the production of printing plates for the purpose of obtaining impressions from the plates.

Typesetting may be done manually or by machine. The manual method is the oldest and least productive (at most 2,000 characters per hour). It is mainly used for complex composition, such as formulas, heads, and tables. In composing a type page, the typesetter takes letters from the type case one at a time; spaces between words are filled with spacing material. Lines are justified by varying the width of the spaces between words. Machine (hot metal) composition is performed on semiautomatic or automatic Linotype machines (productivity is as high as 9,000 and 12,000 characters per hour, respectively). Hot metal composition results in a metal printing plate, which is suitable for direct printing or making duplicate plates. The basic stages of machine typesetting are composition of the text, heads, formulas, and tables; make-up, or assembly of the type page, incorporating the heads, page numbers, formulas, illustrations, and other elements; printing and proofreading of trial impressions (proofs); correction of type matter; and approval for printing. Proofs are pulled during machine typesetting in order to correct inadvertent errors and to allow the author and publisher to make changes. The exchange of corrected proofs between the printing plant and the publishing house greatly slows down the typesetting cycle.

Hot metal composition is being replaced by photocomposition, which produces transparencies (negatives) of the pages of books, journals, newspapers, and other printed matter. The transparencies of the text and other elements (formulas, tables, and illustrations) are then pasted onto a transparent base, and subsequent copying produces the required printing plates (letterpress, offset, or gravure). The main stages of photocomposition are production of a punched or magnetic tape of the text and instructions that specify the typeface and other composition data; production of a transparency using a photocomposition machine (simultaneous preparation of type pages for checking is possible); proofreading; and approval for printing. Transparencies may also be produced in hot metal typesetting by one of the following methods: photographing a page that is printed on coated paper; producing an impression directly on a thin transparent film; producing an impression on special film, which is then treated in a developing solution (Electrotex); or photographing composed matter directly (Brightype).

In a photocomposition machine, the images of the required characters are projected one at a time by type carriers or an electronic memory onto a light-sensitive film and are photographed. Because of their optical and other systems, photocomposition machines make possible the use of a wide range of type sizes and fonts. Photocomposition machines operate at very high speeds and also have other advantages. The use of electronic computers for photocomposition is also possible. Approval for printing may be performed simultaneously with submission of the manuscript for photocomposition. The high productivity of automatic photocomposition machines (1 million characters or more per hour), as well as the reduction or elimination of the exchange of proofs, sharply reduces the length of the production cycle.

Rapid publications that do not require high quality are set on composing typewriters, which produce an impression on transparent film or paper. Impressions on film are used as transparencies for make-up and production of the printing plate by copying; impressions on paper are photographed to produce transparencies.

Design of systems that include reading devices, automatic proofreading, photoelectronic automatic devices, computers, and other innovations will make possible complete automation of typesetting.


Tekhnologiia poligraficheskogo proizvodstva, book 1. Moscow, 1956.
Popov, V. V. Obshchii kurs poligrafii, 6th ed. Moscow, 1964.
Shul’meister, M. V. Ruchnoi nabor. Moscow, 1967.


References in periodicals archive ?
The trade schools required students to specialize in a particular sub-field: Were you a typesetter, perhaps on a Linotype or Monotype if in a hot-metal/letterpress shop, or on a phototypesetter in an offset shop ?
Two possibilities automatically present themselves: the typesetters just failed to set the title, or Cervantes wasn't keeping proper track of his chapter numbers.
And when she was made redundant again, Grass Roots helped her learn the graphic design skills that got her a job as a typesetter designing adverts at The Western Mail and Echo.
The refined stylistictastes of the author combined with the expert craftsmanship of the typesetter, Drukkerij Orientaliste (Peeters Press), grace the appearance of this second edition as much as they did that of the first.
Maybe that local headline was the work of a jaded typesetter about to be laid off, but certainly the omen of this heckuva year has been the dropping of the W.
I was in the day program, vocational testing, volunteer jobs, and did training for a year as a typesetter.
Moreover, this concept of instant publishing is still a bit unnerving to someone who started out handing her copy to a typesetter and then watched her words get waxed on to pages on a light table, had those pages get shot to film and color separated and then shipped to the printer.
There is no need to write "the table below" or "insert table about here," because the placement of the table is determined by the typesetter.
Won Wo's business apparently went downhill around the turn of the twentieth century so that when Wen Xiongfei was fifteen years old, he had to begin working as a Chinese typesetter at Mon Hing Poi (1) during the day, while continuing to attend classes in evening high school.
He had held a number of jobs after leaving school,including a delivery driver, but in the early 1990s he got one as a typesetter, designing and laying out pages for children's funbooks.
Back in the late '60s to late '80s, producing a page of magazine copy went something like this: the writer would shuttle clean copy from a typewriter to the typesetter, who would re-type the very same copy on a high-powered gadget, like the Compugraphic 8600, along with a bunch of other keystrokes for code defining type-style, column width, space between lines and the like.
Twain was 18 years old and serving as a substitute typesetter for the Philadelphia Inquirer.