typography

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typography

(tīpŏg`rəfē), the art of printingprinting,
means of producing reproductions of written material or images in multiple copies. There are four traditional types of printing: relief printing (with which this article is mainly concerned), intaglio, lithography, and screen process printing.
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 from movable type. The term typographer is today virtually synonymous with a master printer skilled in the techniques of type and paper stock selection, ornamentation, and composition. Before the development of typography, related arts flourished for centuries. Scribes in ancient Egypt and the Middle East perfected the craft of writing on papyrus scrolls and clay tablets. Hellenistic and Roman makers of books developed the art, which reached a peak of aesthetic perfection in the exquisite illuminated manuscriptsmanuscript,
a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C.
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 of the Middle Ages (see illuminationillumination,
in art, decoration of manuscripts and books with colored, gilded pictures, often referred to as miniatures (see miniature painting); historiated and decorated initials; and ornamental border designs.
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, in art). The first European typographers imitated these manuscripts, but the introduction of metal types in the 15th cent. brought about a radical transformation. Crisp and uncompromising, metal types imposed new standards of composition. A highly conservative art, modern typography adheres closely to tradition. Since legibility is of the utmost importance, the forms that print most legibly are retained. Now created on computers, new typographic styles (type faces) continue to develop, to suit myriad uses in the design of advertisements, posters, newspapers, greeting cards, almanacs, and fine books. For a list of notable type designers, see typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
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.

Bibliography

See E. Gill, An Essay on Typography (1931, reprint 1988); J. R. Biggs, Basic Typography (1969); W. Chappell, A Short History of the Printed Word (1980); P. Baines and A. Haslam, Type and Typography (2002); J. Felici, The Complete Manual of Typography (2002); S. Fussel, ed., Bodoni: Manual of Typography (new ed. 2010). See also bibliography under typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

typography

[tī′päg·rə·fē]
(graphic arts)
The techniques involved in letterpress printing, including style, arrangements, and appearance of the printed matter.

typography

The layout of text on a printed page, sign or other object. It refers to the style, size and layout of the text characters (fonts). The oldest typographic tool ever discovered was the Phaistos Disc, a bronze disc with raised Greek characters. Its date of origin is disputed by the experts; from as far back as 1400 B.C. to as "recent" as the 1300s A.D. See imagesetter and font.
References in periodicals archive ?
When reading the profiles of many a 16th-century typographer, they often begin with the words: "He acquired the printing office upon marrying the widow of the printer.
That is why it is important to educate type designers and typographers and raise their consciousness enabling them to produce or repair special characters correctly.
The result is a fresh, informed look into the fascinating early career of a major typographer.
Good typographers did what they could to dodge and deflect this perversion of the craft, but overall, the era of phototype (roughly 1960 to 1985) was, like most of the nineteenth century, a period of prolonged typographic depression.
Exercises in both HTML and CSS are included and are supported by a secure site with solutions, critiques, and revisions for each lesson, enabling you to think like a typographer while writing in HTML and CSS.
Maximage will be joining forces with Manuel Krebs, co-founder of book and typeface publisher NORM, to give a typography workshop, followed by a talk on type and design, during which they'll be joined by local typographer Pascal Zoghbi and Yara Khoury, founder of Al Mohtaraf design house.
Birmingham has a strong connection to type as the birthplace of 18thcentury typographer and industrialist, John Baskerville.
com)-- Noted calligrapher, typographer, author, editor and graphic artist Michael Clark, of a Virginia suburb of Washington DC will speak at Lettersong Gallery, 1501 Story Avenue, Louisville KY on October 9th.
Dubai "There aren't enough Arabic typefaces," said typographer Tarek Atrissi.
My thanks include Rick Giezentaner, our typographer for many years, and many of the spirits who have carried the torch: Elizabeth Catlett, W.
The fourth section of the work is a case study showcasing the work of Jonathan Barnbrook, including an interview with the well known typographer and a selection of his works.
The memorial to printer and typographer John Baskerville in Centenary Square has been emblazoned with the show adverts for months, which are still marking the stone even though the production finished at the end of April.