typography

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typography

(tīpŏg`rəfē), the art of printingprinting,
means of producing reproductions of written material or images in multiple copies. There are four traditional types of printing: relief printing (with which this article is mainly concerned), intaglio, lithography, and screen process printing.
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 from movable type. The term typographer is today virtually synonymous with a master printer skilled in the techniques of type and paper stock selection, ornamentation, and composition. Before the development of typography, related arts flourished for centuries. Scribes in ancient Egypt and the Middle East perfected the craft of writing on papyrus scrolls and clay tablets. Hellenistic and Roman makers of books developed the art, which reached a peak of aesthetic perfection in the exquisite illuminated manuscriptsmanuscript,
a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C.
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 of the Middle Ages (see illuminationillumination,
in art, decoration of manuscripts and books with colored, gilded pictures, often referred to as miniatures (see miniature painting); historiated and decorated initials; and ornamental border designs.
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, in art). The first European typographers imitated these manuscripts, but the introduction of metal types in the 15th cent. brought about a radical transformation. Crisp and uncompromising, metal types imposed new standards of composition. A highly conservative art, modern typography adheres closely to tradition. Since legibility is of the utmost importance, the forms that print most legibly are retained. Now created on computers, new typographic styles (type faces) continue to develop, to suit myriad uses in the design of advertisements, posters, newspapers, greeting cards, almanacs, and fine books. For a list of notable type designers, see typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
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.

Bibliography

See E. Gill, An Essay on Typography (1931, reprint 1988); J. R. Biggs, Basic Typography (1969); W. Chappell, A Short History of the Printed Word (1980); P. Baines and A. Haslam, Type and Typography (2002); J. Felici, The Complete Manual of Typography (2002); S. Fussel, ed., Bodoni: Manual of Typography (new ed. 2010). See also bibliography under typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

typography

[tī′päg·rə·fē]
(graphic arts)
The techniques involved in letterpress printing, including style, arrangements, and appearance of the printed matter.

typography

The layout of text on a printed page, sign or other object. It refers to the style, size and layout of the text characters (fonts). The oldest typographic tool ever discovered was the Phaistos Disc, a bronze disc with raised Greek characters. Its date of origin is disputed by the experts; from as far back as 1400 B.C. to as "recent" as the 1300s A.D. See imagesetter and font.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the music printing domain, he became an imperial typographer in Prague, as the bulk of the works he published were written by Rudolf II's musicians and composers, including those who only stayed at the court temporarily.
'Fjortoft holds a book printer and typographer. He was leader of the Left from 1986 , but resigned in 1990 after the Liberals' poor choices autumn 1989 .
Croatian typographer Nikola Durek adds that the thickness and the position of the bar should be determined by the contrast of the letter and the x-height.
Typographer Bruno Maag gave a passionate speech about the need for clear typefaces and graphic design.
Rob Lowe--better known as Supermundane--is a designer, artist, illustrator, typographer and art director residing in London.
Ezer, a typographer trained at the Bezalel Academy in Jerusalem, appears on his Web site wearing a white lab coat and contemplating a vial, surrounded by tools not found in a typical design Office.
He is an artist, designer and typographer with an international reputation and this is a rare opportunity to see his work locally.
In 1938, while working in the family community of the sculptor and typographer Eric Gill, George met Olive Blackstone and his association with her in Gloucestershire began what was to become his second great interest--puppetry.
Following the introduction Miss Marsh turns to short biographies of 38 figures associated with the Pre-Raphaelite world, starting with Rossetti and ending with the engraver and typographer, Emery Walker.
He has founded eight publications, serving as publisher, editor, or both for TypeWorld (now Electronic Publishing), Computer Artist, Color Publishing, The Typographer, EP&R and both the NCPA and PrintRIT Journals.