typography

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typography

(tīpŏg`rəfē), the art of printingprinting,
means of producing reproductions of written material or images in multiple copies. There are four traditional types of printing: relief printing (with which this article is mainly concerned), intaglio, lithography, and screen process printing.
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 from movable type. The term typographer is today virtually synonymous with a master printer skilled in the techniques of type and paper stock selection, ornamentation, and composition. Before the development of typography, related arts flourished for centuries. Scribes in ancient Egypt and the Middle East perfected the craft of writing on papyrus scrolls and clay tablets. Hellenistic and Roman makers of books developed the art, which reached a peak of aesthetic perfection in the exquisite illuminated manuscriptsmanuscript,
a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C.
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 of the Middle Ages (see illuminationillumination,
in art, decoration of manuscripts and books with colored, gilded pictures, often referred to as miniatures (see miniature painting); historiated and decorated initials; and ornamental border designs.
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, in art). The first European typographers imitated these manuscripts, but the introduction of metal types in the 15th cent. brought about a radical transformation. Crisp and uncompromising, metal types imposed new standards of composition. A highly conservative art, modern typography adheres closely to tradition. Since legibility is of the utmost importance, the forms that print most legibly are retained. Now created on computers, new typographic styles (type faces) continue to develop, to suit myriad uses in the design of advertisements, posters, newspapers, greeting cards, almanacs, and fine books. For a list of notable type designers, see typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
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.

Bibliography

See E. Gill, An Essay on Typography (1931, reprint 1988); J. R. Biggs, Basic Typography (1969); W. Chappell, A Short History of the Printed Word (1980); P. Baines and A. Haslam, Type and Typography (2002); J. Felici, The Complete Manual of Typography (2002); S. Fussel, ed., Bodoni: Manual of Typography (new ed. 2010). See also bibliography under typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

typography

[tī′päg·rə·fē]
(graphic arts)
The techniques involved in letterpress printing, including style, arrangements, and appearance of the printed matter.

typography

The layout of text on a printed page, sign or other object. It refers to the style, size and layout of the text characters (fonts). The oldest typographic tool ever discovered was the Phaistos Disc, a bronze disc with raised Greek characters. Its date of origin is disputed by the experts; from as far back as 1400 B.C. to as "recent" as the 1300s A.D. See imagesetter and font.
References in periodicals archive ?
These studies focused primarily on issues of legibility, layout, and typographic features (Kimball & Kropf, 2005; King Roth, 1994) and paid no attention to the communicative potential of typography.
The project reinforced the use of type as pattern and showed prospective graphic designers that the traditional boundaries of typographic expression can be easily breeched to make very impressive graphic statements.
Typographic Matchmaking in the City, both the project and the resulting book, proposes some intriguing and important propositions.
There are moments when I see this kind of material as a stock of DNA from which a future typographic Jurassic Park will be able to create living types" (p.
The non-designer's design book: Design and typographic principles for the visual novice is a must-have for communicators who lack formal schooling in graphic design.
He wrote and illustrated several books for children, and produced two other books on typographic matters: The Anatomy of Lettering (1935) and The Living Alphabet (1975).
Experimental studies of typographic factors have also been inconclusive.
For example, he appears to identify the value of what he calls the typographic mind-- "detached, analytical, devoted to logic, abhorring contradiction'-- too closely with the actual practices of book-reading societies.
This practical book applies decades of typographic theory and practice directly to web design using HTML and CSS.
The events have been organised by The Typographic Hub, part of the Birmingham Institute of Art & Design at Birmingham City University.
CSOdessa has launched anew setoflibraries thatoffers acomplete solution forproducing high-quality typographic infographics forsocial media, presentations, educational material, oranyother purpose thatyou d use typography ininfographicsfor.
Typographic design; form and communication, 4th ed.