typography

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typography

(tīpŏg`rəfē), the art of printingprinting,
means of producing reproductions of written material or images in multiple copies. There are four traditional types of printing: relief printing (with which this article is mainly concerned), intaglio, lithography, and screen process printing.
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 from movable type. The term typographer is today virtually synonymous with a master printer skilled in the techniques of type and paper stock selection, ornamentation, and composition. Before the development of typography, related arts flourished for centuries. Scribes in ancient Egypt and the Middle East perfected the craft of writing on papyrus scrolls and clay tablets. Hellenistic and Roman makers of books developed the art, which reached a peak of aesthetic perfection in the exquisite illuminated manuscriptsmanuscript,
a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C.
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 of the Middle Ages (see illuminationillumination,
in art, decoration of manuscripts and books with colored, gilded pictures, often referred to as miniatures (see miniature painting); historiated and decorated initials; and ornamental border designs.
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, in art). The first European typographers imitated these manuscripts, but the introduction of metal types in the 15th cent. brought about a radical transformation. Crisp and uncompromising, metal types imposed new standards of composition. A highly conservative art, modern typography adheres closely to tradition. Since legibility is of the utmost importance, the forms that print most legibly are retained. Now created on computers, new typographic styles (type faces) continue to develop, to suit myriad uses in the design of advertisements, posters, newspapers, greeting cards, almanacs, and fine books. For a list of notable type designers, see typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
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.

Bibliography

See E. Gill, An Essay on Typography (1931, reprint 1988); J. R. Biggs, Basic Typography (1969); W. Chappell, A Short History of the Printed Word (1980); P. Baines and A. Haslam, Type and Typography (2002); J. Felici, The Complete Manual of Typography (2002); S. Fussel, ed., Bodoni: Manual of Typography (new ed. 2010). See also bibliography under typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

typography

[tī′päg·rə·fē]
(graphic arts)
The techniques involved in letterpress printing, including style, arrangements, and appearance of the printed matter.

typography

The layout of text on a printed page, sign or other object. It refers to the style, size and layout of the text characters (fonts). The oldest typographic tool ever discovered was the Phaistos Disc, a bronze disc with raised Greek characters. Its date of origin is disputed by the experts; from as far back as 1400 B.C. to as "recent" as the 1300s A.D. See imagesetter and font.
References in periodicals archive ?
Corambis's speech later picks up on the typographically slippery loofe and loofe (loose): with dramatic irony in light of her later madness, he comments about her that 'that we thinke / Is fureft, we often loofe' (D4r).
In the 1582 edition, the lines are usually divided typographically into half-lines (see example 2).
While mimicking the lineation of a Thesaurus entry, it is typographically uninflected and visually stable or neutral.
At first glance, the notation types from individual Prague printers generally differ, and they can even serve to determine the office that produced typographically anonymous works.
Johanna Drucker defined it as a typographically ordered description of the chaos of the battle (131), a position that has recently been challenged by Selena Daly, who has focused instead on Marinetti's attempt to "futurize" the mountain landscape in order to reconcile it with the chiefly urban nature of Futurism ("The Futurist Mountains" 327-31).
The filtering and the mediation are amplified typographically by the presence of italics which not only, as Brauner suggests, renders "the status of the initial text ...
When Neil Postman wrote his classic, Amusing Ourselves to Death, about the shift from a typographically focused society to one that was ruled by television, his title could just as easily have been foretelling the increasing use of gamelike activities in all aspects of life.
Typographically separating narratives have always worked for me a I learned that from Birdy by William Wharton, a novel by which I measured people's intelligence when I was 15.
It doesn't only exhibit to locals, it is a bridge to the international arts scene," Fallaha explains of the idea behind the center's logo -- a blend of the Arabic and Latin alphabet to form a typographically subtle 'B' shape.
Strong typographically, the site is simple, the films exude personality, and it's the people who ultimately sell an organisation."