typography


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typography

(tīpŏg`rəfē), the art of printingprinting,
means of producing reproductions of written material or images in multiple copies. There are four traditional types of printing: relief printing (with which this article is mainly concerned), intaglio, lithography, and screen process printing.
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 from movable type. The term typographer is today virtually synonymous with a master printer skilled in the techniques of type and paper stock selection, ornamentation, and composition. Before the development of typography, related arts flourished for centuries. Scribes in ancient Egypt and the Middle East perfected the craft of writing on papyrus scrolls and clay tablets. Hellenistic and Roman makers of books developed the art, which reached a peak of aesthetic perfection in the exquisite illuminated manuscriptsmanuscript,
a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C.
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 of the Middle Ages (see illuminationillumination,
in art, decoration of manuscripts and books with colored, gilded pictures, often referred to as miniatures (see miniature painting); historiated and decorated initials; and ornamental border designs.
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, in art). The first European typographers imitated these manuscripts, but the introduction of metal types in the 15th cent. brought about a radical transformation. Crisp and uncompromising, metal types imposed new standards of composition. A highly conservative art, modern typography adheres closely to tradition. Since legibility is of the utmost importance, the forms that print most legibly are retained. Now created on computers, new typographic styles (type faces) continue to develop, to suit myriad uses in the design of advertisements, posters, newspapers, greeting cards, almanacs, and fine books. For a list of notable type designers, see typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
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.

Bibliography

See E. Gill, An Essay on Typography (1931, reprint 1988); J. R. Biggs, Basic Typography (1969); W. Chappell, A Short History of the Printed Word (1980); P. Baines and A. Haslam, Type and Typography (2002); J. Felici, The Complete Manual of Typography (2002); S. Fussel, ed., Bodoni: Manual of Typography (new ed. 2010). See also bibliography under typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

typography

[tī′päg·rə·fē]
(graphic arts)
The techniques involved in letterpress printing, including style, arrangements, and appearance of the printed matter.

typography

The layout of text on a printed page, sign or other object. It refers to the style, size and layout of the text characters (fonts). The oldest typographic tool ever discovered was the Phaistos Disc, a bronze disc with raised Greek characters. Its date of origin is disputed by the experts; from as far back as 1400 B.C. to as "recent" as the 1300s A.D. See imagesetter and font.
References in periodicals archive ?
A modern graphic design trend is typography tightly interacting with other elements of the composition.
There is also a section that shows the versatility of designing with Arabic typography for bilingual or Arabic only media and including different industry and service sectors such as finance, food, hospitality, cars and even traffic signals, where creating Latin and Arabic versions of the same typeface was crucial to convey the message.
Although the term certainly has much deeper implications in the realms of politics and philosophy, where it concerns typography and design, this definition succinctly summarizes what we might call rhetoric.
In particular, she credits an eye-opening Arabic calligraphy class and instructor Samir al-Sayegh for planting the seed of Arabic typography as a design concept, disassociated from the calligraphy found in religion.
In 2010, attorney Matthew Butterick published Typography for Lawyers, Essential Tools for Polished and Persuasive Documents.
Typography can be defined as 'the art or process of printing from type .
AN EXPLORATION of calligraphy and typography in all its guises will be the subject of the Bluecoat Display Centre's new exhibition.
His invention changed the world of typography, in fact, his invention changed the world.
As a book historian, I know something of typography and its history, bur reading Rosendorf's Typographic Desk Reference has made me realize that I still have much to learn.
Tootoonchi will host a talk at noon Wednesday, February 3, to address how typography and calligraphy function in Iran.
Active Literature: Jan Tschichold and New Typography.
David's design, which incorporates big, bold gold typography was inspired by a course unit he did last year.