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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Tzar was handed to a pound after his previous owner realised he was growing too big.
POLICE chiefs today hit back after a United Nations drugs tzar branded parts of Liverpool "no-go" areas run by dealers and gangsters.
Central Military Club [7 Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd, tel: 02/ 980 6715] Parov Stelar - December 2, 9pm.
Killing Cancer is urging the Department of Health to make PDT more widely available on the NHS and is holding talks with the government's cancer tzar Professor Mike Richards.
Ed Mayo, the newly-appointed "consumer tzar", writes in a book titled 'Consumer Kids' that the companies that are recruiting school kids for market research include toy and gadget manufacturers Mattel and Nintendo, as well as snack companies Tizer, Wrigley's and Coca-Cola.
A major factor in encouraging him to sue was learning that the safety limit over the race's distance of 1m22yds was reduced following the incident, which resulted in two horses, including Lake's mount, the John Best-trained Tzar, having to be destroyed.
Ferguson and Grokhotov claimed the other seven games for Curdworth, although "The Tzar" just scraped home 12-10 in the fifth against county junior Alan Caffrey.
1547 Ivan the Terrible was crowned the first Tzar of Russia.
Petersburg where he became an adviser to the Tzar, Alexander Nicolaevich Golitzin, whose vision was to convert the Jews.
Labour peer Baroness Kennedy attacked her party's 'American-style campaigning', while the Government's former drugs tzar Keith Hellawell also raised concerns.
Making Her Name: Helen's granddad was a rich colonel in the Russian Tzar's army, who got stuck in England, with no cash, after the revolution.