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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(12) However, the tzarist government soon began using the ensuing turmoil of the student movement as an excuse to deny women's access to academia.
To these are added anti-semitic conspiracy theories in the manner of "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" (a tzarist forgery) and also some American science fiction details.
Spanning 20 years of Tzarist Russia, it tends to drag but word says its emotional rollercoaster replays the ride.
In a book which appeared in tzarist Russia in 1911 and which was apparently concerned with Marxist conceptions (the reference here is based on a quotation from the German translation which was published in the 1940's) reads: "The concrete personality should perish.
These opportunists were violating international law, as the first tzarist charter of the Company restricted foreigners from trading directly with natives in lands claimed by the tsar.
They replied, "God was angry at our forefathers and scattered us among the gentiles for our sins." According to an account written by Alexander Dumas, the author of The Three Musketeers, in his 1858 book Adventures in Tzarist Russia, Vladimir replied, "There seems to me no sense in taking sides with these fugitives from the wrath of heaven.
He also invokes the memory of his distant cousin, whose exploits in nineteenth-century Russia and writings on the tzarist empire inspired Kennan in similar directions.
The Tzarist regime, however, wanted to amputate its long-standing imperial nemesis by carving out as much territory as possible, handing it over to the burgeoning nationalist forces in Anatolia - while ruthlessly repressing such forces at home.
The plot unfolds during the 1880s First Aliya (the first wave of Zionist immigration to Palestine), where memories of pogroms in Tzarist Russia echo the Holocaust.