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Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.



in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In our series, peptic ulcer perforation was highest in the age group of 41-50 years.
(11,32) ASA is purely based on the comorbid status and the severity of the preoperative patient and not specific to peptic ulcer perforation patients.
The diagnosis of duodenal ulcer perforation was that established by the admitting surgeon, based on clinical features and supposed by radiological evidence and confirm at operation.
Unlike previous studies from Nigeria which reveal no cases of gastric ulcer perforation [27, 30, 34], we now report gastric ulcers outnumbering duodenal perforation by a ratio of about 2 : 1.
In adults histamine-2 receptor blockers proton pump inhibitors and treatment of Helicobacter pylori have already replaced the role of elective surgery in peptic ulcer disease (PUD).1 Current treatment modality has also decreased the rate of elective surgery but emergent surgical conditions such as peptic ulcer perforation ( PUP ) bleeding or obstruction have not been decreased.2 However effects of improvement in the management in children are not apparent as in adults because the literature on the subject is uncommon.Various surgical procedures have been advocated for patients with PUP ranging from simple closure with an omental patch vagotomy to gastrectomy.
However, the number of patients admitted for emergency surgery after peptic ulcer perforation has not undergone a similar decline, and peptic ulcer perforation remains a substantial healthcare problem.6 Suture closure of perforated duodenal ulcer is a contaminated emergency surgery.
The cause of death was acute gastrointestinal bleeding in 7 cases (5 cases of duodenal ulcer, 2 cases of gastric ulcer), peritonitis following ulcer perforation in 4 cases (3 cases of duodenal ulcer, 1 case of gastric ulcer, volume of intra-abdominal fluid between 150 mL and 2500 mL), and coincident bleeding and perforation in 1 case of duodenal ulcer
Rising frequency of ulcer perforation in elderly people in the United Kingdom.
Although the exact etiology of peptic ulcer perforation still remains unclear, some factors such as stress, an underlying disease or corticosteroid/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are proven to play a role (2,3).
[4,5] Before that Crisp described adhesion formation process in 1843 following peptic ulcer perforation. While the conservative treatment of perforative gastroduodenal ulcer was proposed by Wangensteen in 1935.
Thus, antiulcer medication and presentation of elderly patients have changed in peptic ulcer perforation (PUP) and, transforming the patient profiles with PUP in our era.
Veliyev and Merrell reported a death rate of 32.2% from duodenal ulcer perforation and 20.1% from perforated gastric ulcer.12