In some studies, it has been shown that such division plays a significant role in the estimation of the risk, since it has been found that the ulnar loop
is significantly associated with breast cancer.
Dermatoglyphics features like sandal gap, Kennedy line, brachydactyly, clinodactyly, polydactyly, simian crease, Sydney line, increased ATD angle and Ulnar loop
represents 42.1%, 53.2%, 37.3%, 36.5%, 4%, 33.3%, 24.6%, 40.5% and 100% cases respectively.
According to Jain et al,(9) there was decrease in ulnar loop
and Pursnani et al and Godfrey et al showed non-significant difference in ulnar loops
The study conducted by Khadri Sayed Yunus, Goudar ES and Khadri Sayeda Yasmeen  showed that the predominant pattern among both male and female was ulnar loop
pattern (38.42%) in male and (44.56%) in female followed by plain whorl pattern (24.04%) in male and (18.24%) in female, respectively.
Radial loop, ulnar loop
, arches and whorls were recorded (Fig.
Radial loop and ulnar loop
were counted, both separately and jointly.
According to the side of opening of the curve loops may be ulnar loop
or radial loop (Fig.
Loops are subdivided into two main types--radial loop and ulnar loop
according to their positioning and the flow of the ridges.
K (2005) (21) found an increase in the ulnar loop
patterns on the distal phalanges of ten fingers.
In the same study on Zimbabweans, ulnar loop
were the most predominant digital pattern type in both sexes followed by whorls in males and arches in females.
Bierman et al 1988 (18) and Sridevi 2010 (19) observed that ulnar loops
were significantly associated with breast cancer.