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Related to ultramontanism: Gallicanism


(ŭl'trəmŏn`tənĭzəm) [Lat.,=beyond the mountains, i.e., the Alps], formerly, point of view of Roman Catholics who supported the pope as supreme head of the church, as distinct from those who professed GallicanismGallicanism
, in French Roman Catholicism, tradition of resistance to papal authority. It was in opposition to ultramontanism, the view that accorded the papacy complete authority over the universal church.
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 or other tendencies opposing the papal jurisdiction. The term was used principally in France by Gallicans, especially before the French Revolution, but it was revived in 19th-century Germany by the group that left the church as Old CatholicsOld Catholics,
Christian denomination established by German Catholics who separated themselves from the Roman Catholic Church when they rejected (1870) the decrees of the First Vatican Council, especially the dogma of the infallibility of the pope.
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 after the First Vatican CouncilVatican Council, First,
1869–70, the 20th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church (see council, ecumenical), renowned chiefly for its enunciation of the doctrine of papal infallibility.
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. The term is now obsolete, since all those in communion with the pope accept his supremacy. See papacypapacy
, office of the pope, head of the Roman Catholic Church. He is pope by reason of being bishop of Rome and thus, according to Roman Catholic belief, successor in the see of Rome (the Holy See) to its first bishop, St. Peter.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a religious and political trend in Catholicism. Adherents of ultramontanism maintain that the pope has supreme power in ecclesiastical matters and the right to intervene in the secular affairs of any state. First enunciated as a doctrine at the Council of Constance (1414-18), ultramontanism was firmly supported by the Jesuits in the 16th century. In the first half of the 19th century, it was advocated by members of reactionary aristocratic circles, for example, J. M. de Maistre, who saw a centralized church headed by the pope as an effective weapon against revolution. The ideas of ultramontanism were embodied in the Syllabus of Errors (1864) and in the resolutions of the First Vatican Council (1869-70). During the age of imperialism, ultramontanism was adapted to new historical circumstances, and it became the banner of clerical forces opposed to the labor movement and to socialism.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The proper response to the secular state was not reactionary but liberal ultramontanism. However out of step with progress the papacy's fulminations might have seemed, on Perreau-Saussine's reading they fit perfectly with the postrevolutionary political situation.
This tired liberal cliche does not conform to the author's own account of Maistre, since his call for the liberty of the Church reveals "a core of liberalism at the heart of ultramontanism." Furthermore, an advocate of unlimited state power would not write, in Du Pape, "No government has the power to do whatever it pleases." Just because Charles Maurras, an atheist and monarchist, claimed Maistre as a mentor does not give Perreau-Saussine permission to exaggerate the intellectual inheritance.
Ultramontanism refers to the idea developed from medieval times that the ultimate authority in the Catholic Church rests not with a secular prince but--beyond the mountains--with the Pope.
In addition, the development of Ultramontanism inside the French Church played into the hands of Church opponents who always accused priests to be agents of a foreign entity, which was bent on weakening France.
The government of Charles III would not be satisfied with the successes against ultramontanism in the defeat of the Jesuits; instead it would continue to work towards a royal church through reforms in the later 1760s and 1770s.
Included in the first volume are chapters on biblical criticism and responses to it, both positive (Protestant liberalism and Catholic modernism) and negative (the Princeton theology and Ultramontanism).
Catholic Ultramontanism, conservatives of every stripe, traditionalists, Protestant confessionalists, and Evangelical fundamentalists, no matter how distant they are from their specific ecclesial affiliation or object of devotion, belong to this mode of defining identity.
Bartolomeu dos Martires and the bishops of Cadiz and Astorga were not, to be sure, revolutionaries: they represented at the Council of Trent the last defence and protest of the Churches of the Peninsula against the invading Ultramontanism; but their work really was, in its consequences, revolutionary, and by labouring for it they belonged to the movement and the spirit of the great and emancipatory sixteenth century.
To show why Ultramontanism necessarily constructs a Newman who (as in the works of Wiseman) is intellectually subservient to his superiors, (5) I must first briefly explain the logic of the Ultramontane position.
Another wild card that only became more important toward the end of the period Alvis examines was the phenomenon of ultramontanism. Just as modernizing trends were expanding the horizons of national communities, nineteenth-century Roman Catholics were also developing a greater sense of extralocal identification with coreligionists.
Ultramontanism had its time," the priests wrote, referring to the movement for strong papal authority that led to the 1870 proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility.