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(ŭl'trəmŏn`tənĭzəm) [Lat.,=beyond the mountains, i.e., the Alps], formerly, point of view of Roman Catholics who supported the pope as supreme head of the church, as distinct from those who professed GallicanismGallicanism
, in French Roman Catholicism, tradition of resistance to papal authority. It was in opposition to ultramontanism, the view that accorded the papacy complete authority over the universal church.
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 or other tendencies opposing the papal jurisdiction. The term was used principally in France by Gallicans, especially before the French Revolution, but it was revived in 19th-century Germany by the group that left the church as Old CatholicsOld Catholics,
Christian denomination established by German Catholics who separated themselves from the Roman Catholic Church when they rejected (1870) the decrees of the First Vatican Council, especially the dogma of the infallibility of the pope.
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 after the First Vatican CouncilVatican Council, First,
1869–70, the 20th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church (see council, ecumenical), renowned chiefly for its enunciation of the doctrine of papal infallibility.
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. The term is now obsolete, since all those in communion with the pope accept his supremacy. See papacypapacy
, office of the pope, head of the Roman Catholic Church. He is pope by reason of being bishop of Rome and thus, according to Roman Catholic belief, successor in the see of Rome (the Holy See) to its first bishop, St. Peter.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a religious and political trend in Catholicism. Adherents of ultramontanism maintain that the pope has supreme power in ecclesiastical matters and the right to intervene in the secular affairs of any state. First enunciated as a doctrine at the Council of Constance (1414-18), ultramontanism was firmly supported by the Jesuits in the 16th century. In the first half of the 19th century, it was advocated by members of reactionary aristocratic circles, for example, J. M. de Maistre, who saw a centralized church headed by the pope as an effective weapon against revolution. The ideas of ultramontanism were embodied in the Syllabus of Errors (1864) and in the resolutions of the First Vatican Council (1869-70). During the age of imperialism, ultramontanism was adapted to new historical circumstances, and it became the banner of clerical forces opposed to the labor movement and to socialism.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
While the testimonies do not clarify the supposed protagonism of the Jesuits in the riots, they do show, that since the fall of Ravago as the king's confessor in the 1750s <<the Society had radically changed its attitude in the short space of 10 years: from ultra-regalist Ravago, the posture becomes more genuinely and consistently ultramontanist. And on the other extreme, the rest of the clergy, because of the need to find anti-Jesuit testimony during the months of the investigation, appear as the closest ally to the reforming and 'Jansenist' team>> (translation mine).
One does not need to endorse Cornwell's version of 19th- and 20th-century history to agree that Pope Pius XII was ultramontanist with autocratic tendencies and did not always feel uncomfortable with dictators.
In Curran's estimation, Sabetti combined a rigid articulation of the Alphonsian manualist tradition with an "ultramontanist ecclesiology which stresses the church as a hierarchical society with the pope enjoying fullness of power" (103).
Specifically, in her "contempt for the Modern side" (91), Jean Brodie resembles most those late-nineteenth-century Protestants, Tractarians, and ultramontanist Catholics who, in Newman's words, are "ever hunting for a fabulous primitive simplicity" (Essays 234).
(57) Drawing on ideas beginning with the writings of the great royalist and Ultramontanist philosopher and theologian Joseph de Maistre (1754-1821), the counter-revolutionary tradition argued that only a divinely sanctioned authority, both in the Church and in the State, could safeguard the unchanging Christian tradition passed on from time immemorial and protect it against the demonic forces which the Revolution had unleashed.
French Catholics became ultramontanist, looking to the pope for support against their secularist governments.
Muller emphasizes "the saint's association with popular Ultramontanist devotions to the Sacred Heart, a clear influence on the heart-centered spirituality of Hopkins's poem" (p.
Throughout the period 1815-48 the Rhineland suffered periodic eruptions when, for example, peasants objected vehemently to policies on woodland use drafted in and administered from Berlin or Munich, Solingen craftsmen and manufacturers criticized trade practices drafted in Berlin, Mainz bourgeois objected to proposals on law reform drafted in Darmstadt, rationalist Protestants in the Palatinate took issue with ultramontanist initiatives hatched in Munich.
Revolution and to the Ultramontanist mindset typical of 19th-century
David Lewis (London: Burns and Oates, 1877)] and ending with Philip Hughes's The Reformation in England (London: Hollis and Carter, 1950-54), the last statement of "truly Ultramontanist history," Vidmar weaves his way through forgotten historians and their works.
The fact that most of the bishops brought home to Australia the same openness they displayed during the Council proved invaluable for at least the first phase of the process of reception: The excesses that have befallen some national Churches have been avoided [in Australia], as has the tendency towards an ultramontanist (and culturally-infantilising) over-emphasis on the ordinary jurisdiction of the papacy.