emission of charged particles by quasars along biaxial jets alludes to an electromagnetically active central engine of some form.
In the new picture, an ultrarelativistic
narrow jet with an opening angle of 0.
This is not a difficult process numerically, but in the limiting ultrarelativistic
case C [right arrow] [infinity]--effectively a null geodesic - it becomes especially simple
heavy nuclei in the jet are high-energy cosmic rays that would punch right through the local interstellar medium.
Radiated neutrinos are ultrarelativistic
, a fact exploited by the Supernova Early Warning Systems to alert optical telescopes of impending supernova activity .
jets of charged particles can be sustained for millions of years strongly suggests that the central black hole must itself be electrically charged.
Secondly, a dust-like energy momentum tensor for a purely radial motion with account of an ultrarelativistic collapsing matter and thermally emitted radiation is obtained in subsec.
2 A dust-like stress-momentum tensor of ultrarelativistic particles
In the ultrarelativistic limit, the equation of state is given by:
Neglecting the vacuum contribution in relation to the ultrarelativistic substratum, one turns back to the eqn.
The energy-momentum tensor of the field sets up an inhomogeneous viscous media, which is in the state of an ultrarelativistic gas.
2] (78) indicating that such fields are in the state of an ultrarelativistic gas--at positive density of the medium its inner pressure becomes positive, the medium is compressed.