transduce electrical energy into high-frequency ultrasonic waves, which in turn convert a liquid solution into aerosols.
Different devices are available for inhalation therapy including metered-dose inhalers (MDI), dry-powder inhalers, jet nebulizers, and ultrasonic nebulizers
. Nebulizers are commonly used in patients with severe airway obstruction and inadequate coordination and for those agents that are unavailable as MDI or dry powder for inhalation (Le Brun, De Boer, Heijerman, & Frijlink, 2000).
* The U-5000 and U-6000 [AT.sup.+] ultrasonic nebulizers
, when coupled with CETAC's [AT.sup.+] desolvation system, can improve detection limits by as much as a factor of 50.
With four daily induced sputum samples collected over 4 days using an ultrasonic nebulizer
, a sensitivity of 84% for bronchial carcinoma has recently been reported .
An aerosol of the precursor solution, which consisted of zinc acetate, ammonium acetate, and YAG phosphor (at 1wt.%; NYAG4156 phosphor, INTEMATIX, Fremont, CA, USA) powder, was produced using a commercial ultrasonic nebulizer
. Then, Si[O.sub.2] insulators with various thicknesses and ITO electrodes were deposited on the as-prepared ZnO:YAG films by RF sputtering for comparison.