It states that if material in which the sound speed is [c.sub.1] has boundary with another material in which sound speed is [c.sub.2] and angle of beam incidence is known, the refracted angle can be calculated using trigonometric functions; knowing the wave path it is possible to illuminate region of interest which is achieved by steering (delaying) ultrasonic radiation
where phased shows its advantages to single element systems.
HIFU uses ultrasonic radiation
to heat the tumor, which causes necrosis, hence, temperature-sensitive carrier molecules, such as liposomes, micelles, or polymers release the drug while passing through it.
The above literature reveals that for many applications from low sonic transducers to ultrasonic radiation in gas or fluid medium including underwater sonar, manipulations on the geometry of flat plates of different kinds, that is, rectangular or circular, led into a solution suited for that specific application.
Juarez, "Flexural vibrating free-edge plates with stepped thicknesses for generating high directional ultrasonic radiation," The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol.
Other methods, such as the combination of demulsifier and hydrocyclones  and the combination of demulsifier and ultrasonic radiation
[4, 10, 23, 26], have been evaluated, but these techniques are still not used in industrial crude oil demulsification processes .
Barry has spent half a century engaging the invisible--from ultrasonic radiation
and electromagnetic energy to telepathic channels.
"In this research, the two methods of ultrasonic radiation (ultrasonic bath) and the classic method of magnetic stirrer for the production of super paramagnetic nanocrystals of Mn3O4 were used," Ms Rohani, one of the researchers of the project," said.
"However, a combination of nanobeam and nanoparticles was formed in the presence of ultrasonic radiation. In this case, the mean size of nanoparticles was 10 nm, and the nanobeams had a diameter of 12 nm and a length of 100-900 nm.
In analytical chemistry, ultrasonic radiation
has been used infrequently, although it could be a powerful tool for accelerating various steps in the analytical process .
This focusing is achieved by micromachining the transducer into a hemispherical shape, thus aiming the ultrasonic radiation
to a focal point.
It is responsive to the ultrasonic radiation
or noise generated by the shear action of the fluid flowing in the pipe.