underdevelopment


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underdevelopment

[¦ən·dər·də¦vel·əp·mənt]
(graphic arts)
Insufficient development of a photographic print; processing to a degree lower than the optimum density.

underdevelopment

  1. the general state of a society yet to undergo major social and economic development, particularly by INDUSTRIALIZATION and MODERNIZATION.
  2. a process whereby a society, especially its economy, changes under the influence of another society which becomes dominant. Baran (1957), Furtado (1964) and FRANK (1967b) formulated the concept in opposition to prevailing economic theories of change in the THIRD WORLD, and in particular to the theory of MODERNIZATION in the SOCIOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT. As argued by Frank and Baran, ECONOMIC SURPLUS is said to be transferred out of the dominated society, making economic growth there difficult or impossible. Commercial ports and élites in the Third World absorb some of the surplus, but most is absorbed in the dominant societies in a METROPOLIS-SATELLITE relationship. The underdeveloped economy has certain activities encouraged at the expense of others. The industrial countries were interested in developing mineral and agricultural products from the Third World as supplies to their own economies. The Third World countries were in turn seen as potential markets for manufactured goods. Thus, underdevelopment was a condition which already industrialized societies had not experienced. This led to the conclusion that the processes of industrialization experienced in Western Europe and the US were not repeatable in the Third World, not least since the starting points were radically different. This economic relationship had important consequences for social, political and cultural processes, so broadening out the concept of underdevelopment to embrace most aspects of society.
The concept has been criticized by Marxists for being overreliant on reference to market forces to explain economic problems in the Third World, for overstressing external rather than internal processes, for underestimating the prospects of industrialization in the Third World, and for having a weak concept of economic surplus at its centre (Brenner, 1977). However, shorn of its more particular usages, the term is frequently used to refer to Third World societies because of the central notion that they confront problems of development different from those faced by the already industrialized countries. See also DEPENDENCY THEORY, WORLD SYSTEMS. Compare IMPERIALISM, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT.
References in periodicals archive ?
The West European and Far East Asian Economic Recovery Programmes both met their goals and proved that it was possible to carry out successful development programmes to defeat poverty and underdevelopment.
This sort of industrialization develops underdevelopment and unemployment.
Meanwhile, the Alliance of Concerned Teachers (ACT) Philippines called on the President to look at raising teachers' salaries as "equally important to increasing the pay of military and police, because doing such is an effort to address underdevelopment in the country."
He blamed conflicts for the county's underdevelopment.
MITHI -- Over fifty luminaries hailing from Sindh's desert of Thar believe the real cause of underdevelopment of their area is lack of human resource which can only be produced through setting up educational institutions in the area.
Similarly vicious circle of underdevelopment is 'low productivity-low income-low saving-low investment'.
'Political leadership of the previous government is responsible for underdevelopment in Balochistan,' Bakhtyar said, emphasising that development of the province was the top priority of the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government.
The report notes that while some aspects of economic freedom have advanced modestly in Pakistan in recent years, 'decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to erratic growth and underdevelopment.'
Among the topics are unblocking Africa's underdevelopment through the Belt and Road Initiative, state of infrastructural development cooperation between China and Africa, Africa-China strategic coalition: a remodeled financial model for infrastructure development, relocating China's manufacturing capacity and industrialization to Africa, and people-to-people interactions: a status analysis of Africans in China.
Contrary to the traditional narrative of development that all countries progress through a series of stages on their road to modernity, the book's underlying argument is 'Underdevelopment isn't a stage of development, but its consequence'.
BAHAWALPUR -- Commissioner Bahawalpur Division Nayyar Iqbal will visit Ahmadpur East tehsil on November 5 to review the progress of underdevelopment projects and inspect the performance of the departments.
His works include the economy of the Maghreb; Global build-up: criticism of the theory of underdevelopment (1970); Neo-Colonialism in West-Africa (1971); the uneven development (1973); Peripheral capitalism and trade (1974); How capitalism works: unequal exchange and the law of value (1975); the crisis of imperialism (1975); in praise of socialism and other writings (1975); the accumulation worldwide (1976); the Arab nation (1976); imperialism and unequal development (1976); the Future of Maoism (1981); Disconnection: towards a polycentric world system (1988); the failure of development in Africa and the third world: a political analysis (1989).