Visitors could view digital images of the underdrawings
and the surface, sliding back and forth to make comparisons in addition to looking at the paintings themselves.
The volume make a stylistic comparison of the underdrawing
revealed in infrared reflectograms of early Netherlandish paintings with the paintings themselves when that is possible.
The first scientific study to be carried out on the painting picked up two preparatory drawings beneath the surface: the underdrawing
for 'The Virgin on the Rocks' and a second drawn on the wood backing of the canvas which appears to be an 'Adoration of the Christ Child'.
is in fact entirely in the Abstract Expressionist mode: It is made up of the swift, whiplike arabesques, with sudden jazzy reversals, that one sees in Pollock or de Kooning.
In each version the libertine Raphael has pulled her down from her dias and placed her on his red-hosed knees, but even with his arms around her, distracted between Nature and Art he glances, crayon in hand, at the underdrawing
on his canvas.
Brought in nearly a year ago to settle an international brawl over whether Leonardo's painting, considered one of the most important paintings in Italy, was too fragile to be restored, Seracini found through X-rays, echography and chemical analysis that while Da Vinci did sketch the gray-green underdrawing
, the paint itself was added much later.
Without much pencil underdrawing
, Bruegel controlled his rich brown and black ink to produce the most intricate large and tiny figures.
Samuel Palmer (British, 1805-1881), Sir Guyon with the Palmer Attending, Tempted by Phaedria to Land upon the Enchanted Islands of Faerie Queene, watercolor and bodycolor, with some gum arabic, over black chalk underdrawing
, on "London Board," 21 1/8 x 29 9/16" (53.7 x 75.2 cm).
The pen, the wash and the white paint highlights were removed from the paper supposedly in an effort to "reveal" the original underdrawing
made by Raphael before the ink was applied.
Although conforming to the court painter's preferred half-length, three-quarter-profile format, its quality as well as underdrawing
suggests that it was by the master's own hand.
A brushstroke, a drip, a line are decisions made against the backdrop of all the other possible marks not made--not just in the sense of pentimenti and underdrawing
but as characteristic choices, as style.
In addition, technical imaging can be used to better visualise the physicality of an artwork: X-rays reveal interior structure, infrared imaging shows underdrawing
and ultraviolet fluorescence reveals restorations on the surface of an object.