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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in man and certain animals (horses, dogs), a developmental defect in which during intrauterine development a testis fails to descend to its normal position in the scrotum.

The formation of spermatozoa in an undescended testis may be diminished or absent. In man, unilateral cryptorchidism is usually caused by intra-abdominal adhesions, shortening of the ductus deferens, underdevelopment of the internal spermatic artery, or narrowness of the inguinal canal. Bilateral cryptorchidism is usually associated with disturbances of hormonal balance, insufficiency of gonadotropic hormones, or hereditary biological factors. Cryptorchidism is classified as abdominal or inguinal, according to whether the testis is retained in the abdomen or in the inguinal canal. Often the testis descends into the scrotum by the age of ten or 12. Hence, cryptorchidism is observed in only 0.3 percent of adults but in 2–3 percent of children and prepubescents.

Cryptorchidism is treated in children by hormone therapy (pituitary gonadotropic hormone and androgens), accelerating testicular development. Surgery is indicated if this treatment proves unsuccessful.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The histological type observed in patients with undescended testicle is seminoma (43-90%) and yolk sac tumor, teratocarcinoma and choriocarcinoma (10-57%) have also been reported (3, 6).
An undescended testicle is often associated with a hernia, which is then also repaired.
Have your dog examined by a vet as testicular tumours are common in dogs, and undescended testicles are about 10 times more likely to become cancerous than one that has descended normally.
An undescended testicle was detected in 16% of men with atopic disease and specific IgE antibodies to inhaled allergens, 14% of those with specific IgE antibodies but no atopic disease, and 9% of controls.
Cryptorchidism (a hidden or undescended testicle) is problem that requires surgical correction.
Men born with an undescended testicle are also at risk as are those who started puberty early.
There is also an increased risk of cancer developing in the undescended testicle.
The patient was questioned further and he denied any history of undescended testicle in childhood, trauma, sexual dysfunction, or genitourinary dysfunction.
The main known risk factor is an undescended or partially undescended testicle (normally, the testes descend soon after birth).
Extravaginal torsion is frequently observed in undescended testicle cases and newborns while 95% of the testicular torsions are seen during puberty except newborn are in the form of intravaginal torsion.
The past history was marked by right testicular teratoma at the age of 22 with a left undescended testicle. He was treated with right radical orchiectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy (three cycles of bleomycin, actinomycin, cisplatin, and vinblastine).