Cryptorchidism

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cryptorchidism

[krip′tȯr·kə‚diz·əm]
(medicine)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cryptorchidism

 

in man and certain animals (horses, dogs), a developmental defect in which during intrauterine development a testis fails to descend to its normal position in the scrotum.

The formation of spermatozoa in an undescended testis may be diminished or absent. In man, unilateral cryptorchidism is usually caused by intra-abdominal adhesions, shortening of the ductus deferens, underdevelopment of the internal spermatic artery, or narrowness of the inguinal canal. Bilateral cryptorchidism is usually associated with disturbances of hormonal balance, insufficiency of gonadotropic hormones, or hereditary biological factors. Cryptorchidism is classified as abdominal or inguinal, according to whether the testis is retained in the abdomen or in the inguinal canal. Often the testis descends into the scrotum by the age of ten or 12. Hence, cryptorchidism is observed in only 0.3 percent of adults but in 2–3 percent of children and prepubescents.

Cryptorchidism is treated in children by hormone therapy (pituitary gonadotropic hormone and androgens), accelerating testicular development. Surgery is indicated if this treatment proves unsuccessful.

V. G. TSOMYK

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The literature on undescended testis (UDT) mainly concentrates on the increased risks of infertility and development of germ cell tumours.[sup.1] Contemporary articles on pediatric testicular problems often poorly address this issue and sometimes neglect it.
CONCLUSION: Undescended testis is most common in right side.In palpable Undescended testis, superficial pouch is the most common site where the testis is found.
Abbreviations AUA --American Urological Association CUA --Canadian Urological Association EAU --European Association of Urology SD --standard deviation Screening for undescended testis is done at every routine well child visit, when the finding is recorded in the medical history, and by physical examination.
It is recognized during conventional surgery or laparoscopic examination of undescended testis alone or in combination with inguinal hernia (1).
Laparoscopic management of undescended testis. Laparoscopy 2008:23-4.
Kotb, "Laparoscopic orchidopexy: the treatment of choice for the impalpable undescended testis," JSLS, vol.
The boy with an undescended testis also had a renal ultrasound, which was normal, and was operated on later by a pediatric surgeon.
Ng, "Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of Spermatic Cord in Undescended Testis," Urology, vol.
The commonest sites of undescended testis are high scrotal, canalicular, and abdominal ones.
On the other hand, testicular tumor has been found in 3-5% of the adult patients with a history of undescended testis (2).
He had had a previous orchidopexy for an undescended testis, and was human immunodeficiency virus positive, and on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
In a female foetus, it can alter the hormone levels and affect the reproductive organs, leading to delayed menstruation later on, whereas in a male foetus, it can alter testicular hormonal activity which can result in undescended testis at birth and low sperms count in adulthood.3