Cryptorchidism

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cryptorchidism

[krip′tȯr·kə‚diz·əm]
(medicine)

Cryptorchidism

 

in man and certain animals (horses, dogs), a developmental defect in which during intrauterine development a testis fails to descend to its normal position in the scrotum.

The formation of spermatozoa in an undescended testis may be diminished or absent. In man, unilateral cryptorchidism is usually caused by intra-abdominal adhesions, shortening of the ductus deferens, underdevelopment of the internal spermatic artery, or narrowness of the inguinal canal. Bilateral cryptorchidism is usually associated with disturbances of hormonal balance, insufficiency of gonadotropic hormones, or hereditary biological factors. Cryptorchidism is classified as abdominal or inguinal, according to whether the testis is retained in the abdomen or in the inguinal canal. Often the testis descends into the scrotum by the age of ten or 12. Hence, cryptorchidism is observed in only 0.3 percent of adults but in 2–3 percent of children and prepubescents.

Cryptorchidism is treated in children by hormone therapy (pituitary gonadotropic hormone and androgens), accelerating testicular development. Surgery is indicated if this treatment proves unsuccessful.

V. G. TSOMYK

References in periodicals archive ?
Undescended testis is present in approximately 2-5% of full-term neonates and approximately 0.
The length of testicular vessels is the main length limiting factor in the correction of undescended testis.
In our opinion, better pediatric training is necessary, and parents need appropriate information on the current consensus on treatment of undescended testis and its importance regarding the long-term health consequences.
Discuss the evaluation process for determining undescended testis in a patient.
The mean operative time in our study for unilateral undescended testis was significantly shorter for the low transcrotal orchidopexy, 28 +-10 SD than for the inguinal orchidopexy, 47+-12min.
Second, an undescended testis that is never brought down will not have normal sperm production in adulthood.
Unilateral rapidly enlarging tender abdominal wall mass with undescended testis should alert clinicians towards consideration of the possibility of seminoma and initiation of prompt intervention.
Cryptorchidism (or undescended testis [UDT]) is diagnosed in approximately 1% of boys who reach one year of age and is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the male genitalia.
Patient gave history of undescended testis on the right side since birth.
However, unlike in Western population, no tumor was seen in undescended testis.