Analysis shows that the void ratio range from 0.37 to 0.76 for 4ft undisturbed sample
and for disturbed sample, the range is from 0.46 to 0.76.
In order to secure an undisturbed sample
, modern samplers consist of a thin barrel and a piston; Far right: the scientific personnel and crew of Carnegie, Falmouth, 1909.
was collected in the urban soil (US) in the experimental site of the Laboratory of Soil Physics, of the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), in Recife-PE, Brazil (8[degrees] 3' 25.4" S; 34[degrees] 57' 19.5" W).
We cautiously collected ten undisturbed samples
from hand-excavated trenches using rigid PVC cylinders (150 mm length and 97.2 mm inner diameter).
were monoliths carefully collected in the above-mentioned layer with proper tools.
This requires, among the others, the availability of high-quality undisturbed samples
. As far as clay soils are concerned, the sampling techniques developed by La Rochelle et al.
All the undisturbed samples
used to determine the SWCC were taken from the same sample pit in the central part of the Valid Landslide (position 2 in Figure 1).
The samples used in the experiments are typical undisturbed samples
of mudstone and sandstone taken from roof and floor of the 8214 working face.
The depth of 0-2.5 cm was selected owing to the presence of a large amount of gravel and pebbles in the lower layers, typical of Luvisols (Embrapa 2006), which make it difficult to obtain undisturbed samples
. In addition, four disturbed samples were taken randomly from the 0-5 cm layer.
Physical indices obtained from undisturbed samples
, which were used in the tests of infiltration and mass loss by immersion, are presented in Table 2.