The calculated reduction would be at a ratio of 100:1, in other words, for every 100 revolutions of the propeller at the input of the gear, its output would be only one revolution, traveling only one cog on the final gear of the undulator
transverse size of the electron bunch, and the coupling factor is [A.sub.u] = 1 for a helical undulator
and [A.sub.u] = [J.sub.0([XI]-[j.sub.1])[XI]) for a planar undulator
, where [XI] = [K.sup.2.sub.u]/[4(1 + [K.sup.2.sub.u]/2)] and [J.sub.0] and [J.sub.1] are the Bessel functions of the first kind.
The new beam line will have three undulators
with a minimum gap of 11 mm, allowing the energy range from 5 keV to 60 keV (0.21 [Angstrom]) to be covered without interruption.
As mentioned before, the LCLS will use the final third portion of the accelerator in conjunction with long arrays of special magnets, called undulators
. These powerful undulators
produce intense pulses of radiation that last less than a billionth of a second.
The measurements were made at undulator
beamline 2-ID-B of the Advanced Photon Source (APS).
The device that made all this possible, the undulator
, was developed by scientists at Cornell and the Argonne (Ill.) National Laboratory.
To achieve this radiation with a 2 cm-period undulator
, the energy of the electron beam must be around 5 GeV.
The photon energy of 585 eV was chosen for maximum contrast between the Ge and surrounding silicon nitride window, and to match the peak of the undulator
second harmonic to yield a high photon flux.
The design of the two insertion device beamlines is based on the APS's unique dual-canted undulator