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Firstly, signals on each circle are separated by unit distance, where numbers of points for three circles are decided to be 4, 11, and 17, respectively.
Transform original vehicle speed data collected from probe vehicles into unit distance travel time.
It then becomes clear that (1) the work per unit distance is nearly the same on the two tests, (2) the fuel consumption is about 1.5 times higher on the City test than on the Highway test, (3) the powertrain efficiency on either test is not primarily a function of vehicle size, and (4) the efficiency on the Highway test can reach 30%, which is approaching the peak efficiency of the powertrain.
Assuming that the marginal external cost per unit distance of a private highway vehicle trip is e, the average number of passengers of a taxi trip is L.
A mathematical approach is proposed to calculate optimal theoretical value of energy consumed per unit distance (EPD), which is used to check if the objective function is approaching global minima.
Table 2: The edge partition of Cay(Zn Zm) based on degree sum of vertices lying at unit distance from end vertices of each edge.
Such a decision requires inputs such as a fixed cost of operating trucks, and variable costs per unit distance traveled, as well as an accurate distance calculation.
Here, ([u.sub.0], [v.sub.0]) is the center of the image, and d is the disparity, which can be expressed by [u.sub.l] - [u.sub.r]; f is the focal length of the camera; and m is the number of pixels per unit distance in the image plane.
Holder and co- workers, [1] reported that oxygen consumption with individuals that used axillary crutches for walking was less per unit distance compared to walking with standard walkers and rolling walkers, but oxygen consumption was more per unit time.
One fundamental contradiction is the conflict between the finite body and the infinite divisibility of the unit distance ab.
In order to facilitate scheduling for the mobile sensor in the presence of obstacles, we assume that its movement direction can only be horizontal or vertical and its minimal movement distance is equal to one unit distance. We set the gSide as one unit distance in this paper.
The unit distance fuel consumption e(q) has a linear relationship with the total weight of the vehicles [q.sub.sum], which is