unit normal


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unit normal

[′yü·nət ′nȯr·məl]
(mathematics)
A unit vector in the direction of the principal normal to a surface or space curve.
References in periodicals archive ?
For a front f : [M.sup.n] [right arrow] [R.sup.n+1] with a (possibly locally defined) unit normal vector field v,
In the RobotStudio, the scroll bar tools can indicate all the points around the surface for selection, the API function Edge.GetTangent(*) is able to get the tangent vector on point [P.sub.0] and the API function Faces.GetNormalToSurface(*) can get the unit normal vector of a polygon.
The inner product of reflected wave [r.sub.m] from subreflector and subreflector's unit normal vector is
where ( )' = d/ds, [??] denotes the unit normal of [gamma] in M and K is the Gaussian curvature of M.
The outward unit normal vector on the surface of any ellipsoid [rho] = const., given through
where ([n.sub.ix],[n.sub.iy],[n.sub.iz]) are the components of the unit normal to the external surface of the PDL (here, the subscripts i = 1 and i = 2 correspond to PDL in the form of a circular paraboloid and hyperboloid, respectively), p is the parameter characterizing the rounding rate of the apex (the tooth root passes through a circular cone at p = 0); in this case p = 0.4.
Nomenclature C: Color function (-) [f.sub.sv]: Total external force per volume on the fluid (N/[m.sup.3]) h: The width of microchannel ([micro]m) l: The length of the lateral channel ([micro]m) L: The length of the slug ([micro]m) [bar.L]: The ratio between organic slug length and water slug length (-) n: Normal vector to the interface (-) [??]: Unit normal vector to the interface (-) t: Time (s) [DELTA]t: Time interval (s) [??]: Velocity vector (m/s) u: Velocity component in x direction (m/s) [bar.u]: [bar.u] = [absolute value of [[??].sub.02]]/ [absolute value of [[??].sub.01]](-) v: Velocity component in y direction (m/s) xl: The length of solution domain (m) yl: The width of solution domain (m).
For a regular parameter surface r(u, v) = (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)), its two unit tangent vectors in the directions of u and v and its unit normal vector are given by [17]
where n is the unit normal vector of the flame front, which can be obtained by
Following that control, the next step was the construction of unit normal variance matrix (Z).
[GAMMA] denotes the surface of the object with the unit normal vector n, and the parameter c depends on the location of observation point.
Let M be a semi-Riemannian hypersurface in [R.sup.3.sub.1], D and N represent Levi-Civita connection and unit normal vector field of M, respectively.