universal gas constant

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universal gas constant:

see gas lawsgas laws,
physical laws describing the behavior of a gas under various conditions of pressure, volume, and temperature. Experimental results indicate that all real gases behave in approximately the same manner, having their volume reduced by about the same proportion of the
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universal gas constant

[¦yü·nə¦vər·səl ′gas ‚kän·stənt]
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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NOMENCLATURE [C.sub.1] constant defined by Equations (8) or (9) ([Pa.sup.-1]) [C.sub.2] constant defined by Equations (8) or (10) ([Pa.sup.-1]) D diffusion coefficient of gas in tube ([m.sup.2]/s) L length of the collector tube (m) M molecular weight (kg/mol) N number of moles (mol) p pressure (Pa) Q gas flow rate (mol/s) r internal radius of tube (m) R universal gas constant (J/mol K) t time (s) T absolute temperature (K) V volume of the system ([m.sup.3]) x position within the collector tube (m) Greek Symbols [eta] dynamic viscosity of the gas (kg/m s) [[lambda].sub.n] eigenvalue in Equation (17) [tau] dimensionless time defined by Equation (18) (-)
The equation generates one dependent variable t, two dependent variables [alpha] and T, three unknown constants Z, Ea and n, and the universal gas constant.
Values assigned to constants used in the numerical model Parameter Value assigned Gas viscosity ([[micro].sub.g], kg/m.s) 1.85 x [10.sup.-5] Water viscosity ([[micro].sub.w] kg/m.s) 1 x [10.sup.-3] Water density ([[rho].sub.w], kg/[m.sup.3]) 1 x [10.sup.3] Universal gas constant (R, J/K.mol) 8.314 Molecular mass nitrogen ([M.sub.g], kg/mol) 2.8 x [10.sup.-2] Temperature (T, K) 293.15 Acceleration due to gravity (g, m/[s.sup.2]) 9.81 Table 3.
G = pRT/[M.sub.c] 2 where p is density, R the universal gas constant and T, temperature Kelvin.
where [C.sub.A] and [C.sub.B] are the concentrations (mol/[m.sup.3]) of species in the reactant side, A is the pre- exponential factor ([s.sup.-1]), [E.sub.a] is activation energy (J [mol.sup.-1]) and R is universal gas constant (J [mol.sup.-1] [K.sup.-1]).
If s (heatingrate) is defined as q dT/dt, and k is expressed as k ko exp(-E/RT), Eq.(2) can be defined asequationwhere, T is the absolute temperature, ko is thefrequency factor, R is the universal gas constant andE is the activation energy.
In this expression [P.sub.0] is the upstream stagnation pressure; [T.sub.0] is the upstream stagnation temperature; d is the CFV throat diameter; [R.sub.u] is the universal gas constant; M is molecular weight of dry air; and C* is the real gas critical flow function for dry air--a function of [P.sub.0] and [T.sub.0].
where [k.sub.0] is a constant, [E.sub.r] is the activation energy, and R is the universal gas constant. The activation energy is usually obtained by experiments and the conversion, [c.sup.*], is determined by
Where: [t.sub.i], seconds, is the cure time at temperature [T.sub.i], [degrees]K; [E.sub.a] is the activation energy, kJ/mole, and R is the universal gas constant.
where Z is the compressibility factor, M is the molecular weight, and R is the universal gas constant.

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