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tool used to create a hole, usually in some hard substance, by its rotary or hammering action. Many different tools make up the drill family. The awl is a pointed instrument used for piercing small holes.
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(in structural engineering), a connecting element that ensures the stability of a main (supporting) member of the frame and contributes to the three-dimensional rigidity of the structure as a whole. Loads applied to one or more structural members are redistributed by means of braces to the adjacent members and the whole structure. A bracing system usually consists of rod systems—such as trusses and portals—and individual rods—for example, angle braces and cross braces. Braces are used most often in steel and wood structures.
A system of horizontal (in the top and bottom chords of the truss) and vertical bracing is used in the roofs of industrial and public buildings whose supporting members are in the form of plane trusses or latticed collar beams, which can bend out of the plane of the supporting members. Such a system of braces is usually used to tie together two supporting roof members: a three-dimensional assembly is formed that has sufficient rigidity with respect to bending in the horizontal plane and with respect to twisting. The other supporting members of the roof are connected to this assembly by means of purlins, cross braces, or ties. Vertical bracing is also installed along columns (usually in the form of latticed portals and spreaders) to prevent the cross frame of a building from bending out of its plane and to guard against the absorption of the longitudinal loads that arise from wind action or the braking of bridge cranes—for example, in one-story industrial buildings with steel or reinforced-concrete frames. In multistory frame buildings, continuous reinforced concrete cores are often used instead of vertical braces along columns (seeFRAME-PANEL MEMBERS).
The principle of forming a rigid three-dimensional assembly from plane supporting members by means of appropriate bracing systems is also made use of in bridges and tower-type structures.
G. SH. PODOL’SKII