Congo red stain (20 x magnification) under unpolarized light
(top) and polarized light (bottom) showing amyloid deposits (pink and amorphous) and positive green-apple birefringence under polarized light consistent with amyloidosis of the bladder.
The sample was placed behind a collimator lens and on a position-controlled stage, and the extinction measurement was recorded using unpolarized light
with a probe beam size of approximately 4 [mm.sup.2].
SPR excitation occurs even with an uncollimated, unpolarized light
, and, therefore, a simple light source, for example, an LED, can be used.
PDI obtains simultaneous measurements of perpendicular polarization states; the two images are then subtracted to remove unpolarized light
. Since a central star and its speckle noise are basically unpolarized, they are effectively suppressed with this dual-beam PDI mode, thus enabling a very small inner working angle of down to ~0.1".
Mxed states of circular, linear, and unpolarized light
generate fourth Stokes parameters between -1 and +1.
, and plane-polarized light that is not "at right angles to the plane of incidence", produce reflected and refracted beams, in accordance with Brewster's Law.
"Conventional polarizers operate by rejecting undesired polarization, which limits their transmission efficiency to much less than 50 percent when illuminated by unpolarized light
," the researchers wrote.
As an example, Figure 2 shows the absorption spectra for a 20 nm-thick InGaN layer sandwiched between a 130 nm-thick GaN cap layer and a 200 nm-thick GaN spacer layer, with the photonic crystal parameters of h = 130 nm, FF = 50%, and a = 300 nm, for the two orthogonal polarizations, as well as for unpolarized light
. It is immediately observed that there are two peaks located close to 550 nm and 650 nm for both polarizations.
We used the state-of-art algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical and microphysical properties, including aerosol single scattering-albedo, size distribution, complex refractive index, scattering phase function, and degree of linear polarization for incident unpolarized light
(i.e., the angular distribution of the first two elements of scattering matrix).
The basic difference from that is the removal of the green filter, polarizer, and analyzer filters, and the turbidity is measured with unpolarized light
. If still molten polymer is kept inside the extruder a third cycle can be applied in order to empty it, and have it ready for the next experiment.
The optical reflectance was measured using unpolarized light
in the wavelength range of 250~2000 nm.