Synchronization

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synchronization

[‚siŋ·krə·nə′zā·shən]
(engineering)
The maintenance of one operation in step with another, as in keeping the electron beam of a television picture tube in step with the electron beam of the television camera tube at the transmitter. Also known as sync.

Synchronization

 

the bringing of two or several processes into a state of synchrony, that is, into a state such that identical or corresponding elements of the processes occur at a fixed phase difference relative to one another (for example, the words of a speaker and a translator during simultaneous translation) or simultaneously (for example, the movement of dancers in a corps de ballet). The synchronization of periodic processes is achieved by bringing the periods, or frequencies, of the processes into mutual correspondence (for example, to equality or some integral multiple value) and by establishing a constant relationship between the initial phases (constant mutual phase difference). Processes that satisfy the conditions of synchrony are called synchronous or synchronized processes, and the property which they possess is called synchronism. Nonsyn-chronous processes are called asynchronous.

The synchronization of processes is extremely important in technology. For example, in power engineering, the operation of generators in an electric power system is synchronized, and the generator voltages are equalized. In television engineering, the line scanning and frame scanning in television transmitters and receivers are synchronized. In motion-picture technology, the filmed image is synchronized with the sound track.


Synchronization

 

in cinematography, achieving an exact correspondence in time between visual images and a sound recording during projection of a motion-picture film or parts of a film produced by recording the visual image (picture) and the sound on two separate carriers— a motion-picture film and a magnetic tape. Synchronization is achieved by beginning projection of the picture and playback of the corresponding sound at the same moment, using the synchronization marks imprinted on the carriers when filming is begun. The projection and playback speeds are then matched exactly with the original filming and recording speeds.

Synchronized speeds for perforated carriers can be achieved if the tape and film traction mechanisms used in filming and in projection and playback are equipped with gear drums driven by synchronous electric motors. If nonperforated magnetic tape is used to record the sound, synchronizing signals must be used to achieve an exact correspondence between the speed of the film and that of the sound track. Such signals are marked on the sound track during filming and have a frequency that is equal to or is a multiple of the frequency or speed of the film. They can thus be used to correct the speed of the carriers during projection of the film or a retranscription of the sound track. If the visual image and the sound are recorded on the same carrier during the filming, synchronized reproduction is automatically achieved.


Synchronization

 

in physiology, changes in an electroencephalogram manifested by regular, time-ordered, and high-amplitude (50–100 microvolts) alpha, theta, and beta waves. The oscillations of the alpha waves range from eight to 13 per second, the theta waves, from four to seven per second, and the beta waves, from 14 to 25 per second. Sleep spindles, induced rhythms, and paroxysmal discharges are special forms of synchronized bioelectric potentials. The opposite of synchronization is desynchronization, which is associated with the influence of such structures as the mesencephalon, diencephalon, and nuclei of the hypothalamus and limbic system on the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres.

synchronization

(1) See synchronous and synchronous transmission.

(2) Ensuring that the same photo, video or document is in two or more devices all the time. See data synchronization.

(3) Keeping time-of-day clocks in two devices set to the same time. See NTP.

(4) Keeping the clocks of two devices beating at the same rate. See synchronous transmission.

(5) Sending identical electronic signals from two transmitters. See MediaFLO.
References in periodicals archive ?
[1996] showed, among other things, that in the Unsynchronized Finitely-Many Users Model, for all [{[[Lambda].sub.i]}.sub.1 [is less than or equal to] i [is less than or equal to] n]-Bernoulli distributions with [[Sigma].sub.i] [[Lambda].sub.i] [is less than] 1, all superlinear polynomial backoff protocols are stable in the sense that the expected time to return to the empty state and the expected average message delay are finite.
However, if the resident is on an unsynchronized attractor, selection for lower dispersal due to the cost is counteracted by the selection for higher dispersal due to unsynchronized dynamics (Appendix).
In this paper, we propose the UDC (Unsynchronized Duty-cycle Control) scheme.
In addition to home electronics, he mentioned possible uses in large systems such as concert stages and stadiums where unsynchronized loudspeakers can lead to barely intelligible speech or distorted music.
Unsynchronized metadata can mean that searches conducted in both the ERM system and in the source applications would not produce the same results.
Treatment for VF consists of an unsynchronized electrical countershock with at least 200 to 300 joules, implemented as rapidly as possible.
As shown on the left of this exhibit, uneven distributor demand unsynchronized with actual end-user demand made real inventory needs impossible to predict and forced high inventory levels that still failed to prevent out-of-stocks.
"Some of the problems faced by pediatricians in the initial stages of implementation, including substantial delays in being able to bill for vaccines to insurers who have not yet changed their billing procedures to accommodate a new vaccine and unsynchronized timing of coverage between the public and private sectors, might well be ameliorated by an increased coordination between ACIE vaccine manufacturers, and health plans before recommendation of a new vaccine," they concluded.
Decisions and processes based on unsynchronized master product data lead to a greater risk, greater waste, and greater consumer dissatisfaction.
Far too often the culture of the home and the culture of the school remain unsynchronized for minority children (Patton & Day-Vines, 2003).
There exist effective and fairly efficient ways to remove the sources of nondeterminism that occur in sequential programs: the output of nondeterministic system calls can be traced; the nondeterminism caused by interrupts, traps, and signals can be dealt with by using the technique of Interrupt Replay [Audenaert and Levrouw 1994]; noninitialized variables and dangling pointers can be detected by packages like Purify(1) or Insight.(2) The nondeterminism that is caused by unsynchronized accesses to shared memory in parallel programs (the so-called race conditions) is however much harder to deal with during debugging.
This evolutionary, unsynchronized, and intersubjective nature of economic systems, says Lawson, accounts for the well-known failure to uncover stable econometric relationships.